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A Course in Developing Sustainable Livelihoods


Table of Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 2 Personal Orientation............................................................................................................. 6
Developing An Action Plan..................................................................................................................................... 27

Professional Orientation..................................................................................................... 30 Efficient Communication..................................................................................................... 62 Career Planning.................................................................................................................. 72 Financial Management ....................................................................................................... 89 Time Management............................................................................................................ 100
Stress Management ...............................................................................................................................................110

Teaching Techniques & Methods ...................................................................................... 118 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 124

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The course in developing Sustainable Livelihoods described in this manual is a series of seminars (40 hours) in which young women learn a diverse range of topics, including personal and professional orientation, efficient communication, career planning, time management, financial management, and preventing human trafficking. The Training in Sustainable Livelihoods (TSL) experience provides women with the knowledge, skills and confidence to find a job, live independently and make safe and long-term life choices. The TSL experience facilitates the development of young womens skills and activism, helping them to acquire the competencies necessary to ensure sustainable living. Five fundamental resources, which, combined proportionally, ensure a certain level of selfsufficiency and imply specific measures to manage day-to-day problems are the key to TSL.

Personal Resources Financial Resources Social Resources

Physical Resources

Human Resources

Personal resources
Self-esteem Self-confidence Efficient communication Stimulation and maintenance of motivation Balance between personal and professional life

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Personal resources are less tangible and refer to a womans values and selfperception, which strongly influence motivation and courage and therefore are essential to personality transformation. In this sense, women must improve their self-understanding and realize that investing in themselves is a necessary step that can benefit their whole family. Women must get used to exercising greater control over their lives and living environment and consider themselves equals in all of their personal relations. Women learn to develop an I can do it attitude by taking small daily risks that have corresponding rewards.

Human resources
Health Nutrition Education Knowledge and skills Work capacity Adaptation capacity Human resources represent a womans capacity to manage work and salary and consist of knowledge, education, health and leadership skills as well as an ability to manage the contributions other relatives make to the well-being of the family. Human resources also include a womans ability to adapt personal efficiencies and to transfer technical skills acquired from one area of life to other contexts (for instance, household management experience acquired when a woman stays at home to care for children).

Social resources
Personal networks and connections Trust-based and mutual support relations Formal and informal groups: family, friends, colleagues, teachers, mayor, relatives Mechanisms of participation in decision-making Management / leadership Social resources are very important in determining a womans ability to transform her living conditions and the factors that make her vulnerable. They include the relations a woman establishes in her community that she may draw on for support in achieving her goals. Through the establishment of communication networks and personal contacts, women discover that they can improve their support system, which, in turns, makes it easier for them to develop and acquire other resources. For example, women acquire social resources when they make new friends who support their new direction in life. Most women who receive Training in Sustainable Livelihoods take it a step further by volunteering in the community or creating a network of

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professional or business contacts and a few become politically active by, for instance, lobbying for the amendment of certain policies. Some women also try to change the patterns of relations within their family, seeking support for their new activities. Women are encouraged to develop their leadership skills. For example, in a womens support program, women first expressed their wish to ask for help and share their experience and, by the end of the program, many had become role models who had a positive influence on the ideas and attitudes of their peers.

Physical resources
Infrastructure Transport roads, vehicles, etc. Safe buildings and shelter Water and sanitation Energy Communications Land and production Water and water resources Physical resources include all of the equipment, information, services and infrastructure that are essential to a decent life. The lack of access to these assets is a central dimension of poverty. It is very difficult to help a woman whose basic needs are not met (shelter, safety, food). In this regard, the access to transport might be very important for rural women, because the lack of transport isolates them. Access to services for children and the elderly is also important for women, who must have the time to engage in income-generating activities. By earning an income, women are able to improve their physical resources through, for instance, improved access to transport and better living conditions, etc. Assets required for developing a business, such as tools, workspace, computers and equipment are also essential.

Financial resources
Salaries/incomes Cash transfers Credit/loan formal, informal Savings Pensions Financial resources imply financial security. These resources are arguably the most tangible of all in the overall security of a woman and her family. The ability to earn money

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and decide how to spend it provides women with a powerful resource to improve her life. Financial resources also include skills such as managing household finances and family budgets. The indicators of these skills can be represented by the presence of savings to manage crises. To become strong, self-reliant and self-confident, women must combine the resources they already have with the resources that they can acquire. The TSL experience, therefore, teaches young women how to combine all five of the resources described above. Their first task is learning how to analyze their existing resources by reflecting on questions such as: What resources do I have? They learn how to strike a balance between resources after being prompted with the question: How can I maintain the balance between the resources I have? Finally, they learn how to consolidate, maintain, develop and increase their resources. The Moldova Employment and Training Alliance encouraged women to transform their lives from vulnerability to sustainability through the TSL experience.

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Lessons on personal orientation stress the importance of personality and selfconfidence in succeeding in personal and professional life.

TSL participants should be able to:

Explain the concepts of personality and self-confidence. Appreciate the role personality and self-confidence plays in career and life planning. Discover more their personality through psychological tests. Design action plans aimed at consolidating their self-confidence and personality. Set personal goals and objectives for the future. Develop an Individual Action Plan.

Knowledge of oneself: Who am I?

Knowledge and acceptance of the self are essential both to adapting to their social environments and establishing an educational and professional itinerary. Young people tend to discover themselves and their self-confidence in school and among family. TSL instructors must aim at establishing a relationship based on mutual respect to help young people explore who they are and how they choose to live and appreciate the fact that each student will have his or own unique way of expressing his or her individuality. The instructor must be sure to demonstrate confidence in a participants capacity to change for the better; appreciate a participants behavior; highlight the importance of selfesteem in personal development, and nurture the development of a positive self-image by encouraging them to learn about themselves. Since knowing oneself and developing a positive self-image must be learned, the topic Self-knowledge aims at helping participants continue a process of self-awareness that likely began in the family. All of the exercises included in this manual challenge participants to deepen their understanding of themselves. To help them discover the skills, capacities and habits that they may not be aware they have, individuals should complete the questionnaires below:

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QUESTIONNAIRE: ASSESSING PERSONAL SKILLS 1. Have you ever considered your qualities? 2. If yes, what do you think are your most important qualities? 3. Which qualities do others appreciate most in you? 4. Who would you like to be like and why? 5. What do you think your flaws are? 6. What flaws do others see in you? What remarks do you often receive? 7. Could you express these flaws in positive terms? 8. Have you ever tried to address any of these flaws? If yes, describe what you did. 9. Do you think that the marks you received at school correspond to your real potential? (Analyze mismatches by subjects and provide examples). 10. Which professions interest you and why?
After completing the questionnaire, it should become apparent that very few participants know their qualities, flaws or motives for choosing one profession over another. Highlight their level of self-knowledge by engaging in a dialogue about their answers and focusing on their responses to each question. Stress that poor and unrealistic self-knowledge and selfassessment leads to inappropriate career choices.

Exercise: EXPLORING PERSONALITY The mind is like a parachute: it works well when it is open so make sure participants do not cheat when they complete this exercise! Tell them to answer the questions in the order they appear without reading ahead to ensure that one question doesnt influence how another is answered. Instruct them to be sure to lower their eyes slowly and not to jump ahead to subsequent questions. Tell them to jot down responses to each questions, which will be reviewed at the end. The questionnaire is designed to reveal several aspects of personality: 1. Arrange the following five animals in order of your preference: a) Cow; b) Tiger; c) Sheep; d) Horse; e) Pig. 2. Describe the following in one word: a) Dog; b) Cat; c) Rat; d) Coffee; e) Sea. 3. Think of important people in your life that you associate with one of the following colors (one person associated with one color!): a) Yellow; b) Orange; c) Red; d) White; e) Green. Interpretation or results: 1. The answers to this first question express your priorities in life: cow means career; tiger is pride; sheep is love; horse is family; pig is money. 2. The description of the dog represents your own personality. The cat represents the personality of your partner. The rat represents the personality of enemies. Coffee is how you perceive love. The description of the sea represents your own life. 3. Yellow is someone you will never forget; Orange is someone you consider your true

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friend; Red is someone you love; White is your twin soul; and, Green is someone you will remember for the rest of your life.

Exercise: DISCOVERING TALENTS Good at organizing Balanced Faithful Loving Calm List other skills: Good at mathematical calculations Good narrator Analytical Disciplined Good at observing Able to teach Adore beauty Love children Technical skills Good execution skills Meticulous Practical Creative

Instruct the participants to put a check mark beside each of the qualities that they possess. Discuss which professions make use of each and whether the occupations are similar to what the respondent would like to do. Once respondents have revealed the professions they are interested in pursuing, tell them to list the skills, capacities and habits required to excel at each job. Stress that skills and capacities can be learnt and developed.

Self-image is how one perceives his or her skills, capacities and personal behaviors. It is a mental representation of self, which guides the social behavior. A person with a poor or negative self-image will think, feel and behave negatively. A person with a positive self-image: Assumes responsibilities and thinks, "I can do it. Acts independently and thinks, "I can handle it alone." Is proud of his/her achievements. Fulfills new tasks without problems and thinks, "I am convinced that I can do it." Expresses both positive and negative feelings and says, "I am angry when you behave like that. Provides help and support to peers.

A person with a negative self-image: Is unhappy about who he or she is and thinks, "I am not good at anything."

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Avoids fulfilling or taking part in new tasks and thinks, "I do not think that I will pass the exam." Feels unloved and unappreciated and feels, "No one likes me. Claims to be insensitive and thinks, "I don't care that this person does not speak to me. Is influenced easily and thinks, "My friend told me that it is better if I attack others than let others attack me. Does not assume responsibilities. Seems rebellious and indifferent.

Since self-image is so important to success, it is the duty of instructors to help participants and young people: Discover themselves. Practice self-reflection. Identify the structures of the I. Discover the way in which the I can influence beliefs, feelings and behaviors. Nurture positive aspects of themselves. Observe their thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Identify personal interests, priorities and values. Estimate correctly individual and social meaning.

One way to encourage self-knowledge is a SWOT analysis (STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, THREATS), which implies the identification by the participant of as many strengths as possible in his/her personality, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors (I like mature, I am optimistic, I have many friends, I help everyone, etc.), two or three weaknesses (not flaws) he/she wants to address (I am selfish, stingy, envious), his/her chances (opportunities such as parents are well off or employed in good jobs, have access to information, etc.) and obstacles that may interfere with developing positive selfesteem (I am lazy, I get discouraged very quickly, conflicts in the family, lack of money, etc.). Then, based on the skills identified as Strengths, participants should write an action plan to pursue their desired professions. Discussion of the SWOT analysis should focus on obstacles and how to remove them, which may prompt participants to think of solutions they have never considered before. Ask the participants to carry out such an analysis by filling in the blanks below.

Exercise: SWOT analysis My Strengths are:

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My Weaknesses are:

Some opportunities are:

Some obstacles (Threats) are:

Habits are automated responses that are developed, consolidated and exercised consciously, but applied without conscious control. Work habits including the skills to perform an activity well and essentially are knowledge applied repeatedly in different situations. In order to form good habits, it is important to help participants understand how habits relate to a profession, work conditions and quality. Since work habits, like all other habits, are acquired through learning, TSL participants should: Create a learning style, but they can practice several different learning styles that they deem to be effective; Learn permanently because learning breaks are harmful and generate errors; Take risks because only then will they find out what they can and cannot do well; Ask when they want to find something out; Use what they have learnt, otherwise they will forget everything and will have to start from the beginning.

Work habits are learnt by doing. It is impossible to form work habits without doing, but they must be aimed at improving the activity, which requires control and self-control. It is especially important to draw attention to the interaction, transfer and interference of work habits. Transfer is positive because it helps an individual use the elements of a habit they have already formed in the creation and development of a new habit. Interference is a negative phenomenon because it impedes the formation of a new habit. Causes of interference include poor differentiation between two habits, a short time interval between the creation of the former and of the latter and insufficient consolidation.

Exercise: HABITS 1. Distribute a list of the habits in the table below. Ask participants to classify habits according to the ones they think they have already formed and habits they would like to

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develop. 2. Ask the participants to select from the list of habits they would like to develop only one they consider very important. 3. Group participants who listed similar habits together and ask them to collectively determine the importance of developing the habit. Challenge them to answer the question, This habit is important because... 4. After the presentation of these reasons, the participants try in individual groups to identify which of the habits they already possess might be useful in developing the habit they seek. Evaluation: Ask participants to: Compare the groups of habits and ask: Why do you need other habits as well? If you had more habits, what would change in your life?

Habits I enjoy problem solving I work in a team When I have problems, I ask for help from people around me I can imagine how things will look like when they are ready I can draw I can use some manual tools I can complete any task I can cook for several people I can match colors I can find and read information quickly I am interested in how things work I can enforce rules I can do anything I can find out any kind of information I can drive

I can take care of people I can use electrical devices I can write very well

I can follow instructions I can manage a budget I can work individually

I can use a computer

I can analyze people

I am a good organizer I can make people feel good I can be a good leader I can work in a team I can teach others I stay calm when I am under pressure I can influence people I can supervise others I can use resources economically I can work with adults I can make decisions

I can solve conflicts I can plan my time I can administer money

I can observe details I can handle routine I fix things easily I am good at estimating I am a good salesperson I am a good listener I can communicate well

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I am a creative thinker I can assume responsibility

I am good at school and in extracurricular activities I can learn foreign languages

I can support and help people I can select information

Suggested exercises:
The following exercises achieve two goals: self-knowledge through the identification of different types of habits; and, exercising team work through the settlement of tasks assigned for the selected topic. 1. Using the card as a guide, ask participants to discuss a habit they currently possess, asking them to specify professions in which it would be useful as well as a habit they would like to form/develop. Analyze the answers. Some habits may not be compatible with desired professions or with their personality. 2. Simulate a job interview between an employer and job applicant, which participants playing each role. The participant playing the employer is instructed to have very specific features, skills and habits in mind for the position. The applicant is told what to expect, knows how to present him/herself to convince the employer that he or she is the most appropriate person for the job. 3. Highlight through the discussions that follow the activities, how employers assess job candidates and the steps involved in career planning for those who are still in school and to those who want to find a job. It is not possible to follow all or any of the steps and it is necessary for each person to distinguish the steps which are applicable and which are not.

Self-discovery and choosing a career

Choosing a profession requires knowing yourself and what you want out of life. It requires making a series of important decisions according to the algorithm of steps in the accompanying figure.

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Discover Yourself

Find the funds

Find the career that suits you best

Apply for admission

Find an educational institution that provides the appropriate training

Discover yourself: What you are good at, what you like? Find the career that suits you best: Determine your skills and talents and
corresponding vocations and professional preferences.

Find the institution that provides the training for you to pursue your dreams: Research specialties, faculties, and professions provided in your
country and foreign education institutions that offer them.

Submit applications to educational facilities/search for funds to cover your


Exercise: SELF-EXPLORATION Strengths At school, I am good at foreign languages With my friends, I am the best listener In music and arts, I remember very well the words of plays In sports, I score lots of goals Among people, I help the My view Other peoples view

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elderly In the family, trusts me a lot everyone

Things, I can fix a lot of things Animals, I am very fond of animals In the community, I sing in the church choir Environment, I collect the garbage in my neighborhood Organization, I like to organize various activities in school Me, I trust what I do

Cornerstone of a success career: Skills, values interests and personality

When planning a career, it is very important to identify your strengths, highlight your skills and traits and improve them according to the requirements of the job. The four most important things to consider, include: Skills; Values; Interests; Personality. Your academic performance is an indicator of your skills, which reflect your strengths and weaknesses. Skills can be assessed in the following areas:

Numeric. If you have numerical skills, you are good at Mathematics,

Accounting, Engineering, and Technology.

Social and verbal. You are probably good at languages and History. You
are very good at writing reports and making presentations. You probably work very well in a team.

Technical. You are probably good at and fond of working with wood or
making technical drawings. You might like doing design or implementing new products.

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Artistic. If you are good at arts, music, theater, which demonstrates creative

Values are what we appreciate, what we consider desirable or preferable in relation to certain aspirations. Values play an important role in guiding actions and setting objectives and goals. Values are factors in building identity and direct and legitimize the principles we follow throughout life. Therefore, it is important to draw attention to the fact that in the absence of values, an individuals life is like a leaf in the wind. Examples of values: performance, collegiality, pleasant family environment, autonomy, care for others, money, power, authority, acknowledgement.

Relationship between vocational needs/values and work environments:

Vocational need/value Capitalization of skills: Accom plishm ent: Activity: Prom otion: Authority: Autonom y: Structure: M aterial com pensation: Collaboration: Creativity: Independence: M oral values: Acknowledgem ent: Responsibility: Security: Social service: Variety: Appropriate activities Tasks that permit skills and habits to be used. Tasks that bring prestige. Tasks that require a sustained level of involvement. Work environments where there is a possibility of promotion based on performance. Tasks that imply the power to decide how to fulfill the job. Work environments with little or no strict supervision. Work environments where the work strategies are explicit and regularly monitored. Tasks that provide compensations depending on the quantity and quality of work, applied in an equitable manner. Work environments where social interactions are capitalized. Tasks that allow innovation. Work environments where work is done individually. Tasks that do not require actions that contravene moral values. Work environments where special individual performance is rewarded. Tasks that allow exercising autonomy and commitment. Work environments that guarantee continuity. Work environments where you can help others. Tasks that may imply a large and diverse range of activities.

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Exercise: IDENTIFYING PERSONAL VALUES 1. Ask participants to make a list of 10 values. Then, to strengthen their self-knowledge, ask them to give up two of these values at a time. When the last two are left, ask them to arrange the values in order of importance and what motivated them not to give up these values. These values should be important factors in their career choices. 2. Analyze the choices theyve made so far and ask them to justify their choices. 3. Ask participants the following: if you had one hour a day at your disposal, what would you choose to do? Why? If you suddenly had $1 billion, what would you do with it? Why? This exercise helps participants identify the values that underpin their choices and guide how they choose to live their lives. The discussion generated by the thought exercise will help classify or identify the relationship between personal choices and values. 4. Ask participants to describe their ideal lifestyle: Would they live in the city or in the village? In the middle of nature or in an apartment? Would they travel a lot or have a sedentary life? Would they be active in political and civic activities, spend more time with the family, have a lot of money, have a lot of time to themselves, feel safe, live close to their place of work, etc.? Ask them to compare their ideal lifestyle with their preferred careers and whether they are compatible. If they are not, what can be done? Do they change their lifestyle or they reorient towards another career? 5. Ask participants to identify people, either real or fictional, they most admire. The reason they admire them often is closely linked to their personal values. 6. Exploring the discretionary use of time is another simple way to identify values. Ask the following question: If you had only one hour, what would choose to do? A variation of this exercise is the discretionary use of money. In reviewing responses, be sure participants explore what underpins their respective choices, which will help them understand what they value and how their values motivate their decisions. Ideally, participants should identify their values on their own, individually. Group discussion should aim at helping them clarify/identify the relationship between certain choices and personal values. The group discussion should help participants clarify and identify the link between their choices and personal values. Be sure that the focus remains on the relationship between values and choices and not the value of the value. The goal of investigating personal values is to help participants appreciate what they are so they use them as a matrix in evaluating possible careers. Values answer the question: What is most important to me? Values serve as guiding stars and strongly influence whether we are happy and satisfied with life. Values are principles and guidelines upon which we should make all decisions in life. For example, you receive an offer of a job what would take you far from home. Yet, one of your most important values is family. What decision do you make? Exercise: PRIORITIZING VALUES Value Money Insignificant Might be important Important Very important

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Spiritual development Independence Status Security Taking risks Family Achievements Authority Social contribution Leadership Appreciation Expertise Healthy lifestyle

1. Ask participants to mark the values that are important to them with a + and those that arent important with a - to help them establish a hierarchy of their five most important values. 2. Then ask them the following questions: When you had the chance to select courses, which ones did you choose? Why? What kind of activities do you prefer to do in your free time? Why? When you choose your friends, what characteristics do you expect them to have? What sort of volunteer activities have you done? Why? What was the most important decision you ever made? What guided you in making the decision? What was the worst decision you ever made? Why? What was the best decision? Why?

Values are expressed through interests and preferences for certain areas of knowledge. Interests are fundamental to answering the question: What do I like to do? Some people like to be the center of attention while others prefer to work alone. Some are interested in nature, plants and animals while others are interested in art and music. Interests should play a very important role in choosing a career. If you make the right

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choice, the chances of succeeding at it and deriving satisfaction from your work will be much higher. Exercise: PINPOINTING INTERESTS Ask participants to consider the groups below. If they had to choose a group, which one would they join?

R. Realistic: People who have skills in athletics and mechanics, prefer to work with objects,
machinery, tools, plants, animals.

I. Investigative: People who like to observe, learn, investigate, analyze, assess or solve. A. Artistic: People who have artistic, innovative or institutional skills and prefer to work in
unstructured situations using their imagination.

S. Social: People who prefer to work with other people and like informing, helping, and
training or have skills in rhetoric.

Theories about personality

Common sense says that the personality is the central, key variable in choosing and adapting to a particular career. However, research has not confirmed a direct correlation between personality characteristics and occupations. Educational or work environments accept a diversity of types of personality. People with different personality characteristics can succeed and be fulfilled in similar occupations because behavior is determined not only by personal characteristics but also by environment. One method for linking personality with occupational environments is to assess them on four bipolar dimensions (Jungs typology):

General attitude towards the world: Oriented towards the external world
of people and objects (extroverted social interaction, need of varied and dynamic work) or the internal world of ideas and internal reactions (introverted work with ideas, calm environment, with little or no social interaction).

Accessing information: Obtains information from senses and focuses on

facts and data (sensitive works that requires attention to details, stereotypes, without too frequent changes) or uses intuition and focuses on possibilities and assumptions (intuitive works where they can use intuition, are stimulated to learn permanently).

Method of assessing information: processes information based on logic

and reasoning (pensive works that require logic, structured thinking, especially with ideas and figure) or on personal values and their effect on others (sentimental delivery of services, especially, to people, work requiring empathy).

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Use of information: Make rapid decisions to reach the result faster (rational
works that allow planning and tracking the plan until the end, works in which to participate in the final result) or postpone the decision to obtain more information (perceptive works that require permanent adaptation to the new and creative).

The RIASEC theory classifies people in six different groups depending upon their occupational interests, which are represented graphically in the accompanying hexagonal figure: R Realistic I investigative A Artistic S Social E Enterprising C Conventional R for Realistic: Prefers activities that imply explicit, structured or regular manipulation of objects, tools, machinery and animals. Has an aversion towards educational or therapeutic activities. Occupational examples: sports coach, sportsman, electrician, farmer, military, and locksmith. Prefers activities that require observational, symbolic, regular and creative investigation of physical, biological and cultural phenomena. Rejects persuasive, social, repetitive activities. Occupational examples: biologist, dentist, mathematician, pharmacist, physicist, and veterinarian. Prefers ambiguous, free, unsystematic activities, which imply the manipulation of physical, verbal or human materials to create artistic forms or products. Has an aversion towards explicit, regular, structured activities. Occupational examples: architect, arts instructor, lawyer, musician, reporter, sociologist, and translator.

I for Investigative:

A for Artistic

S for Social

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Prefers activities that require the manipulation of other people to inform, prepare, develop, cure or educate. Has a version towards explicit, structured, regular activities that imply materials, tools or machinery. Occupational examples: pediatrician, nurse, physiotherapist, and social worker. Prefers activities that require the manipulation of other people to reach organizational goals or to obtain economic benefits. Has an aversion towards observational, symbolic, regular activities. Occupational examples: hairdresser, optician, sales agent, real estate agent, tourism agent Prefers activities that imply the explicit, structured, regular manipulation of information. Aversion towards ambiguous, free, irregular, exploring activities. Occupational examples: accountant, mathematics instructor, and secretary. Everybody want to do what they like and reach goals that make the most of their talent, skills and interests; Some activities oriented towards achieving goals are conscious while others are not; All people are active and psychological factors give their behavior a certain direction.

E for Enterprising

C for Conventional

The RIASEC theory says that:

RIASEC theory is thought to work best for people who are not yet in the labor market or for those who have been unemployed for long periods. The theory has been validated empirically. People work and develop best and get satisfaction from work when their environments are compatible with their personalities. Each of six personality types can be found in every individual. No direct link can be established between the characteristics of the personality and certain occupations. It is rather about specifying the environment and the type of tasks the respective individual prefers. For instance, an extroverted person working in public administration would prefer activities that allow him or her to have contact with the public: e.g. civil servant and to a lesser extent an activity in which he or she works with statistics, while an introvert prefers these tasks more than interacting with the public. Work environments and circumstances in every profession can be adjusted to an individuals needs and preferences. For a behavior, such as enthusiasm in performing a task, to occur, it is necessary that the environment is sufficiently stimulating.

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Personality types and researcher J.Holland) PERSONALITY








Technical activities, handicraft activities, exact sciences Handicraft, technical and artistic activities Work with the public, personnel departments, and handicraft activities. Handicraft activities, work with the public, management Handicraft, administrative and manual activities Exact sciences, technical and handicraft activities Scientific, medical-dental field, literary and artistic activities Medical-social field, mathematic sciences, social services Exact sciences, management, technical activities Exact sciences, data analysis, technical activities Artistic, handicraft and technical activities Intellectual and artistic activities, exact sciences Social services, musical and educative activities Plays, management, artistic activities Artistic, administrative and literary activities Personnel departments, social services, work with the public Social services, medical-dental field, exact sciences Social services, educative work, musical activities, plays Social services, management, sales activities Social services, administrative activities, management Management, handicraft activities, work with the public Management, sales activities, exact sciences Plays, management

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ARTISTIC ENTERPRISING SOCIAL ENTERPRISING CONVENTIONAL CONVENTIONAL REALISTIC CONVENTIONAL INTELLECTUAL CONVENTIONAL ARTISTIC CONVENTIONAL SOCIAL CONVENTIONALENTERPRISING Management, sales activities, social services Management, sales activities, data analysis, administrative activities Administrative and handicraft activities, data analysis Data analysis, exact sciences, administrative activities Administrative and artistic activities, data analysis, Administrative activities, data analysis Data analysis, administrative activities, management

Exercise: INTROVERTED OR EXTROVERTED? In which of the following situations would you be happy? Circle the answer.

Spending time: a. With other people b. Alone

Learning new things: a. Through discussions with other people b. Reading

Working: a. In a team b. Alone

Who you are: a. You talk about how you feel b. You solve problems

Answers: Mostly as Extrovert; Mostly bs Introvert

Introverts: prefer to work and be alone. Even if they work with someone, they prefer that it
is only one person at a time. Occupational examples: fabric designer, carpenter, pharmacist, accountant, engineer, librarian, and technologist.

Extroverts: prefer to work in a team and be in groups. Occupational examples: hotel

manager, police officer, personnel manager, receptionist, journalist, instructor, lawyer and coach. Exercise: TALKING OBJECTS The activity develops psychological and critical analysis skills. It stimulates participation, cooperation, mutual support, understanding and tolerance towards the opinions of others. It also is a method of relaxation, on the one hand, and a source of new discoveries, on the other hand.

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1. Before starting the activity, create a favorable environment that encourages participation of all group members. 2. Start the following discussion: Let us try to imagine that objects and things that surround us can talk. What might happen? What, in your opinion, would they want to tell us? For example, the TV set would like to tell us: Switch me on and I will help you get rid of boredom, the ball is ready to say: Lets play together, when you run after me, you feel much better or the bicycle might say: Get on and I will help you get to your friends place, and the door: Open me and you will see so many interesting things. What, in your opinion, might they say about each of us? 3. Write your own list of objects or use the following list: toothbrush, car, overcoat, boots, comb, mirror, plate, book, bicycle, radio, table, lamp, soap, ball, etc. 4. Instruct the group to choose from the list three objects that they think might talk about them. 5. Allow participants 20 minutes to draw the objects and to record the messages each object might say about them. Remind the participants that they should record only the opinion of objects about them; they should identify themselves with these objects. 6. Divide the group into smaller groups to present the talking objects. The participants can compose a story or a movie with the help of talking objects messages. 7. Ask participants the following questions: Which of the objects have you selected to talk about you? What did you like most about what the objects said about you? What did you dislike about what the objects said about you? Which of the messages seemed the most interesting to you? Which of the messages seemed real to you?

Lifestyle & Quality of Life

Every individual fulfills a number of roles in society throughout his or her life. Making mention of their relations with others family members, friends, and authorities draws attention to the fact that one role may influence another. For example, having to look after younger children or do difficult chores around the house (in their role as a family person) may interfere with a young persons ability to succeed at school. Ask participants to provide examples from their own life or people they know that explore the impact that balancing different roles can have on succeeding in a career. Ask them to discuss the topic with their family. Ask the participants to present what they learned to the group so that they can learn from one another. Highlight the need of education provided at school with a view to form/develop desirable behaviors for the society we live in and in relation to the societys expectations. Do not minimize the role of education provided in the family. Stress that those who have such a career deserve our full respect even if they do not have degrees or higher education.

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Exercise: LIFE STORY 1. Ask the participants to tell a story of their life and make note of how many times they used or were tempted to use negative expressions. By using negative or devalued expressions or words, we place the person in a negative position. Example: Could the director give me another office because this one is too cold? The director might answer briefly: No Formulated in positive terms: Example: Mr. director, I ask you to give me another office because this one is cold and harms my health. The director may say no again, but he/she is more likely to say that he/she will look for solutions to solve your problem. 2. Ask participants to answer the following questions: What issues concern you most now? Are they related to your future profession and career? How important are they? Could they impact your choice of career? What events had an impact on you this week (in the family, among friends)?

QUIZ: THE POSTPONEMENT TENDENCY I hesitate to do tasks for no reason even when they are important. I delay doing things that I don't like. When I have a deadline, I wait until the last minute to take action. I delay making difficult decisions. I delay starting new activities. I am punctual. I postpone improving my work habits. I start work immediately, even on tasks I find unpleasant. I find excuses not to do anything. I avoid doing the things that I dont do well. I allocate even for task I find boring. When I get tired of doing something unpleasant, I stop. I believe in restless work. If I feel something is not worth doing, I stop. I think that the things I dislike should not exist. I detest people who force me to do difficult things.

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If it is something important, I manage to be enthusiastic about it. I am incurable when it comes to wasting time. I feel that it is my absolute right that other people treat me right. I think that other people do not have the right to set deadlines for me. Studying makes me very unhappy. I dont think I can do anything to change how I waste time. When something seems too difficult, I think it is better to postpone it. I often promise to do something only to lose enthusiasm. I implement every action plan I make. I would like to find an easier way to start things. When I have problems with a task, it is usually my own fault. Even though I hate myself for not starting a task, I still do not start it. I always finish my important tasks on time. After I finish a job, I double-check everything. I always look for shortcuts in finishing difficult tasks. I feel blocked and avoid doing thing even if I know how important they are. I have never faced a task that I could not do. Postponing for tomorrow is not my way of doing things. I feel completely overwhelmed by my work.

SCORE: Assign a value to each of the following statement based on the following criteria: That is certainly me = 4 I have this tendency too = 3 I do not have this tendency = 2 That is certainly not me = 1 Before calculating the score, you must reverse the score (so that 4 = 1, 3 = 2, 2 = 3 and 1 = 4) assigned to the following statements: 6, 8, 11, 13, 17, 25, 26, 30, 33, and 34. SCORE: 106, 97, 88, 79, and 70 Percentage SCORE: 85, 70, 50, 30, and 15 A higher score indicates a higher tendency to postpone. If you have, for example, 70 percentage score, this means that your tendency to postpone is greater than 70% of people. Postponement is an important hindrance in building a career. Most people are successful in their careers are people of action who take initiative. Those who postpone tasks often do so with good intentions, not to rush, but when the delay becomes a practice, it becomes an obstacle in making career decisions. The tendency to delay can be reduced if the person makes an effort to change. Those who score greater than 50% must know that

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the tendency to delay is due to a lack of confidence in their capacity to solve a task or inability to delay the reward (patience to get to the end, e.g. to get a diploma). Necessary steps in addressing the postponement tendency: Identification of the reason for the inaction; Dividing tasks up into smaller segments since most agreed tasks seem to be too overwhelming or require sacrifice that are too big.

The "Postponement tendency test," developed by Louis Janda, focused on "organized" and "negligent" styles. When TSL participants learn their score, ask them to create an action plan to reverse the postponement tendency of those who scored more than 50%. In a subsequent meeting, review some of these action plans and evaluate how they were designed and constructed.

Friendships and relations with peers

The definition of friendship is a feeling of sympathy, esteem, respect, mutual attachment that unites two or more people.

Four types of friends The insistent person: He or she wants to meet every free minute that you have,
cleaves to you like a jellyfish and is almost always in touch. He or she admires you and wants to be like you. This tickles you. But this type of person becomes annoying soon. Set limits very clearly, but try doing it in a way that does not offend the other person.

The trustworthy person: Knows exactly what happens to the other person even if
you do not call each other every day. He or she is quick to forgive even if you betray his or her trust because he or she believes in your positive traits. He or she appreciates your friendship and surprises you with small signs of attention. In most cases, this is the best kind of friend.

The pretentious person: Always knows what is better and does not accept other opinions. The pretentious person is very vain. He or she may be spontaneous, can surprise and can even help you. You can learn from people of this kind. The hypocritical person: Tries to be cool all the time and makes a lot of promises,
but if you need his or her help you discover that you will get no help from this person. He or she is selfish, but sometimes you can have fun with him or her. However, you should not expect much from this individual nor should you trust him or her too much or you risk disappointment. Friends are not made overnight. You must select them carefully and study their character very well. A true relationship is formed in time, not during a cup of coffee or at a party. Be open to new friendships, but do not lower your standards. Becoming someones friend means sharing experiences that bring you closer to each other and increase you understanding of each other. For a friendship to form, someone must make the first step. There is a risk that the other person will refuse this offer, but it is not the end of the world. There are many others

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who will accept it. Sometimes, friendships will not work out because personalities dont mesh or people dont have enough in common. Knowing someone implies risks because you never know what to expect. Ask participants to explore whether they think they have the most appropriate friends. Some people remain friends their whole lives. Others come and go, bonding temporarily through common hobbies, interests and goals or similar lifestyles. The way you choose your friends says a lot about who you are. Friends are an essential part of our life. Recent studies show that friendships help people live longer and they are critical to social networks that are even more important than the family, thus contributing to healthy social life. Still, inappropriate friends can change the course of your life in a very unpleasant way. Therefore, it is good to choose friends carefully. Exercise: CHOOSING FRIENDS Tell me who you spend your time with and I will tell you who you are Write a questionnaire with open-ended questions (as opposed to Yes or No answers) to help TSL participants explore: how they choose their friends including the criteria used, what they appreciate most from their friendships; the behavior they tolerate and would never tolerate from a friend; what they expect from a friend; what they are offer in friendship; whether they make distinction between friendship and collegiality; and, how they would describe their friendships. The answers provided will help them understand to what extent they appreciate the importance of friends in their life and career. If necessary, insist on the fact that humans are social beings who need other people.


TSL participants should be able to:
Describe the main elements of an Action Plan. Develop an Action Plan. Assess the degree of implementation, relevance and measurability of the action. Justify that a good action plan leads to success. Develop a general action plan in line with the materials learned during TSL.

Identifying goals and setting objectives: A good action plan begins with preparation. The goal describes what you wish to achieve. Make sure that everything you plan is related to the goal you want to achieve. For example, if your goal is to reduce the number of students in a community who drop out of school, all actions must be strictly

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targeted at achieving that aim. Three or four key objectives may be formulated to achieve the goal. For instance, in reference to the goal stated above one objective might be to explain to participants and parents from the community what the negative consequences of not attending school are. Taking action without clear or too-vague objectives or objectives can put the Action Plan at an immediate disadvantage. Therefore, it is very important that an Action Plan have achievable, measurable and realistic objectives. The objectives must be accessible and be tied to a targeted deadline. It is very important that achievement is assessed rigorously. Be as cautious as possible to limit the risk of error. If mistakes are made dont abandon the plan but learn from the experience. Setting reasonable objectives increases the odds of success.

OBJECTIVE: Formulate an objective with sufficient details so that it is as clear as possible What is the deadline for achieving the objective? This objective is: Precise, well determined? Achievable? An improvement as compared to the existing situation? Compatible with the other objectives? Set to a specific deadline? Dependant on you? Note the technique you will use to determine to what extent this objective is reached based on the deadline. YES NO

Planning actions and strategies: Think about the actions you will take to achieve
your objectives as well as the strategies you will use for this purpose. An objective does not necessarily imply only one course of action; it often can be achieved through several actions. For example, the following actions could be planned in support of the abovementioned goal: Discussing the consequences of dropping out of school with at-risk youth. Raising awareness about school drop out rates. Holding a roundtable with the parents of at-risk youth (children who come from socially vulnerable, single-parent families, with one or both parents

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dependant on alcohol) to educate them about the consequences of abandoning school

Identify resources: Compile a list of financial, human, material and other resources
you will need for fulfill your actions. For example, the above-mentioned actions require the following resources: human mayor, police, school director; material, financial specialized literature, video-audio tapes, consumables for the planned activities, etc.

Identify people responsible for carrying out actions/activities: Choose your role
depending on what you can do best. For example, if you decided to invite a police officer or another important person to one of your meetings, appoint someone who is know to be a good communicator to make the invitation.

Establish a deadline for carrying out actions/activities: Set a deadline for

carrying out planned activities/actions. To facilitate your work in terms of planning, prepare a Calendar plan and work according to it.

Review and adapt the action plan: What is new today may be outdated tomorrow. A tool that is efficient now may be considered primitive at a different time or under different conditions. Therefore, at the beginning of any other project, it is necessary to review methods and strategies that were previously used.
Ask participants to comment on what they think about the proposed Action Plan? What worked? What did not work? Why? What would they change about the Action Plan and why.

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The goal of lessons on professional orientation is to help TSL participants choose a career based on their understanding of who they are as well as their skills and interests.

TSL participants should be able to:

Identify the main characteristics of personality. Identify the professional areas that suit their main traits. Appreciate the importance of self-knowledge for personal achievements. Discover their personal interests and vocation through psychological tests. Study the labor market correctly; Establish correctly the steps for career development.

The cornerstone of career planning

Before launching into career planning, consider the three pillars of successful career planning:


World of Education

Labor Force

Knowing yourself: You must know who you are and what you want to do to choose a career that will meet your expectations and needs, challenge you to be successful and will

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allow you to constantly improve your skills and knowledge. Choosing the wrong career can have a detrimental affect on your life.

Knowing the labor market: To understand the career options available to you and
to be prepared to make a choice, you need to be familiar with the labor market and understand the requirements for various careers. This also will help you identify professions that match your interests and skills.

Knowing your educational options: To plan your career, you need to understand
your educational options and the educational qualifications that are required for various careers. You should also consider whether you want to study part-time or full-time. You can choose different paths to the same career. It is the same as taking different roads to the same destination. Career planning starts with a simple question: What do you want to do for work in the future and what are you capable of doing for work in the future? Sometimes, circumstances demand that you take any job that comes along, but that doesnt mean you should no longer plan your career.

Find the field that suits you best

Identifying possible careers that match your interests, skills and values requires you to learn as much as possible about the labor force to find out what career options are available.

Major job categories

Agriculture: Growing of grains, forestry, viticulture, and fishery. Manufacturing: Production and processing of metal items, engineering
products, chemicals, construction, wood, foodstuffs, beverages.

Mining: Extraction of coal, gold, ore, diamonds, salt, stone. Services: Sale, import, export, transportation, transfer, governance,
education, entertainment.

Open air: Farmer, sailor, forester, builder, road engineer, policeman, real
estate agent, surface miner.

Workshop: Mechanic, diamond processing, carpenter, technician. Factory: Mechanic engineer, production manager, master, electrician,
electronic electrician, shipment manager, designer.

Mine: Miner, metal worker, underground works manager, crane operator. Laboratory: Chemist, pharmacist, medical technologist, research specialist,
chemistry analyst.

Office: Clerk, secretary, accountant, human resource manager, lawyer,


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Studio: Painter, architect, artist, designer. Storehouse: Warehouse worker, storehouse manager, dispatcher. Shop: Salesperson, cleaner, storehouse manager, accountant, cashier,
guard, supervisor.

Home: Housewife, personal secretary, hotel manager, cook, waiter, barman. Institution: Instructor, director, instructor, lecturer, doctor, nurse, cleaner. Mobile work: Train operator, pilot, taxi driver, postman, lift operator.

Exercise: MATCHING INTERESTS WITH CAREERS Choose yes or no if you agree with the statements below. Interests I like talking to and providing services to people. I like doing practical things to help people. I like writing and talking and I would like attending some courses in foreign languages or in communication. I like driving and I would prefer a job where I could drive all day and see different places. I like creating and decorating. I like music and theater. I would like to be of service to society. I am good at mathematics and I would like to continue my education at university. I want to attend university but I dont want to study mathematics. I like doing manual practical works and working with tools and machinery. I like animals and plants and I Examples of possible careers Translator, waiter, shop assistant, social worker. Nursemaid, nurse, tourism. Journalist, lawyer, advertising specialist, radio presenter, publicist, screenplay writer. Taxi driver, bus driver, train operator. Artist, baker, owner, potter, hairdresser, fashion designer. Actor, singer, stage manager, TV presenter, dancer, DJ, model. Policeman, soldier, fireman, guard. Engineer, doctor, researcher, accountant, architect, actuary. Lawyer, psychologist, geographer, historian, instructor. Electrician, engineer, technician, plasterer. Animal trainer, farmer, fisherman, YES NO

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would like a job where I could spend more time with them.

florist, forester, gardener.

Below write the subjects you were very good at in school. Then, write two areas that describe best your interests and several directions in the career. School subjects Interests Possible careers

Exercise: SKILLS, INTERESTS, PERSONALITY, VALUES & CAREER Assess your skills, interests, personality and values as they relate to several career options and then decide which ones fit you best. Career Example: fabric designer My skill Artistic My interest Drawing My personality Introvert My value Expertise

Suggestions for exercises: 1. In pairs with opposite situations, highlight the preferred ones: a) I would like to work in open air ___________________in a room. With hard materials ___________with soft materials. With people ________________with objects. Large-scale solutions _________meticulous solutions. b) Explain what motivates the choice.

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E.g. I like working in open air because... c) Think of some jobs that match the above-mentioned preferences. 2. Ask participants to draw a family tree specifying the profession/job/occupation every member of the family had or still has. Identify whether the job/profession the participant is considering is practiced by other family members and whether this contributed to the participants own choice. 3. Imagine that on the way to choosing a career you need to cross a river. You are on one bank of this river. List all of the steps required to get to the other side, including studies, people, institutions, etc. Make an action plan to help you reach your goal to cross the river. Career exploration activities help TSL participants understand what their choices are and improve how they prepare for their chosen career. 4. Present two or three professions and ask the TSL participants to name other professions they know and specify for each of them: content, required education, importance, and prestige. Then, in groups of four or five TSL participants ask them to formulate 10 questions in relation to a selected profession. Have a discussion among the class about each profession, develop a profile for each career and ask each team to write a job description. Give TSL participants the task of interviewing two or three people who have jobs that are familiar to the group. 5. Consider asking a person whose profession is less known (e.g. analyst-programmer) to speak to the group. Exercise: INVENTORY OF INTERESTS Circle the letter that best applies and note how many times you circled each letter. A. I prefer riding the bicycle to watching TV. B. I like to work on the computer. C. I could be a good team leader. D. Its easy for me to meet new people and make friends. E. My favorite subject is music (drawing, ceramics, etc.) F. I am concerned about the environment. A. I like manual labor like working in the garden, fixing the bicycle, cooking, etc. B. I always write to-do lists. C. Id rather try earning money working alone than in a company. D. I feel good when I help other people. E. I like using my imagination and writing fairytales. F. My favorite subject is natural sciences. A. I like working with tools. B. I feel better when my room is clean. C. I prefer working on a project as part of a group rather than on my own. D. I am not shy when I need to express my opinion. E. I would like to redecorate my room. F. Flux and Saptamana seem interesting newspapers to me.

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A. I like it more outside than in the classroom. B. Mathematics is my favorite subject. C. For me, it is important to solve my problems on my own. D. I like asking peoples advice in solving problems. E. I prefer being in the middle of events. F. I like observing the time, plants or animals.

A. I like having pets. B. My handwriting is well structured and readable.

A. I like team sports. B. I like crosswords and puzzles.

C. I would like to be a mayor. C. I like when people ask my advice. D. I like having a pen pal or keeping a diary. D. I like talking on the phone. E. Instead of individual work, E. I doodle in my copybook. I prefer collective work. F. I like disassembling mechanisms to see how they work. F. I am curious and like to learn as many new things as possible.

Look at the letters for which you have the highest score. You may be interested in one of the professions below: A. Exterior-oriented: engineer, coach, pilot, farmer, doctor, veterinarian, carpenter, forester, architect, and landscape designer. B. Detail-oriented: programmer, accountant, banker, engineer, librarian, technician, doctor, and financial analyst. C. Influence-oriented: company owner, career officer, lawyer, school director, sales agent, human resource specialist, police officer and guard. D. People-oriented: salesperson, doctor, director, reporter, social worker, assistant, psychologist, and cashier. E. Arts-oriented: actor, musician, writer, designer, and photographer. F. Research-oriented: scientific researcher, detective, psychiatrist, instructor, engineer, mechanic, market researcher, meteorologist, notary, and lawyer. The goal of the activity is to guide participants in the selection of a profession that suits them best and to inform them about professional opportunities that are available to them in line with their personal preferences, skills and capacities.

Vocational identity
Vocational identity includes aspects related to: inborn and acquired characteristics (such as temperament, introversion, passiveness), personal talents and skills (knowledge and habits), identification with role models (parents, colleagues or other significant people), methods of interaction, conflict resolution and regulating behavior, and the social, vocational and gender roles adopted by an individual.

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Vocational identity is constantly being constructed and reconstructed beginning in early childhood, but begins to take shape in a meaningfully way during adolescence, when cognitive and social interaction skills are sufficiently mature to allow for the development of the personality. The decisions adolescents face such as what subjects to take in school, who to date, to use drugs, to work after school, to attend religious meetings, etc. cause young people to think about their own identity (identifying their own values, interests and skills, assessing their capacity to make decisions and handling various situations) and thus contributes to its crystallization. Vocational identity combines aspects related to knowledge of their own interests, values, skills and competencies, on the one hand with preferences for a certain types of activities, styles of interaction and work environments, on the other hand.

Development of vocational identity

The development of vocational identity starts with a period of fantasy in terms of vocational aspirations. From ages 3 to 10, children identify, from a vocational perspective, with significant people in his/her family or school environment and imitates their behavior in games. For example, they play doctor or pretend to be pilots. This stage is important in vocational development because profession becomes a component of a persons developing self-image. In other words, the child will want to have a profession when he or she grows up. Childrens interests become more differentiated as the primary cycle comes to an end. They learn the importance of understanding their own skills, preferences and values for choosing an educational and professional itinerary. A period of exploration follows from 11 to 17 years. In secondary school, TSL participants explore their own vocational interests, experiment in various types of activities and observe the need to balance interests. The choices the young person makes during this period may be vague and transitory and may be abandoned relatively easily in favor of a different vocational direction. The realism period (18 to 25 years old) is characterized by the crystallization of vocational identity and an overview of the factors that influence the selection of a particular educational and professional itinerary, which requires making more pragmatic decisions.

Forms of vocational identity in teenagers:

Forced identity - the adolescent does not suffer an identity crisis because
he or she took other peoples values and expectations in a non-judgmental way. Teenagers who present this form of identity already have occupational and ideological (political and religious) objectives, but usually these were imposed, either by their parents or colleagues.

Identity crisis - the adolescent faces identity problems. He or she feels

pressure to make a choice, but the choice, which he or she permanently postpones.

Identity diffusion - the adolescent did not make a choice yet and is not
concerned about committing to a certain direction, although he or she might have attempted to make a choice or ignored the matter entirely. These adolescents do not feel pressed to make such a choice and are not, therefore, in an identity crisis.

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Shaped identity - the adolescent made his/her own choices and is clearly
oriented towards achieving certain ideological and professional objectives.

The selection of a profession and place of work reflects the individuals self-image. People who have a positive self-image tend to go to better schools, choose professions with higher levels of educational requirements and explore more career possibilities. That is why, one of the most important elements of vocational orientation is the development of the self-image, through exploration and self-knowledge and positive orientation towards personal characteristics. The shift from one educational cycle to another from secondary school to higher education implies a change in roles. Good knowledge of the self and a positive self-image will help the TSL participants prepare for and make the shift without significant problems.

QUIZ: DECISIONMAKING STYLES 1. I admit to unjustified delays in finishing assignments even if these are important. 2. I postpone doing assignments that I dont like. 3. When there is a deadline for a task, I wait until the last moment. 4. I postpone making difficult decisions. 5. I spin the tasks out when I have new activities. 6. I am punctual. 7. I postpone improving my work habits. 8. I start working immediately even on unpleasant tasks. 9. I always find excuses for not doing what I have to do. 10. I avoid doing some things that I know I dont do well. 11. I allocate sufficient time to complete even the most boring tasks. 12. When I am tired of doing something unpleasant, I stop. 13. I believe in work without recreation. 14. When I see that something is not worth the effort, I stop doing it. 15. I think that the things I dont like to do should not exist. 16. I detest those who force me to perform difficult tasks. 17. I am happy to plan things that I consider important. 18. I am incurable when it comes to wasting time. 19. I know that this is my absolute right that others treat me right. 20. I think that other people do not have the right to set deadlines on tasks I do. 21. Studying makes me completely unhappy. 22. I am currently wasting my time, but I am unable to change things. 23. I prefer postponing things that are too difficult. 24. I promise myself Ill do something only to lose enthusiasm. 25. I implement any plan of action I make. 26. I would like to find an easy way to initiate action. 27. When I have trouble with a task it is usually my fault. 28. Even if I hate myself for not doing something, I still dont start doing it.
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29. I always complete my tasks in time. 30. After finishing the task I always check everything from the beginning. 31. I am always looking for a shortcut in finishing a difficult task. 32. I get stuck on a margin position even if I know how important it is to act. 33. I have never had a task I wasnt able to finish. 34. Postponing is not my way of acting. 35. I feel completely overwhelmed by my work.

The score shall be calculated as follows: 1. 4=yes, its about me 2. 3=I am also bound to do this 3. 2=I usually dont do this 4. 1 =its not about me The score for the statements 6, 8, 11, 13, 17, 25, 29, 30, 34 should be reversed (4=1, 3=2, 2=3, 1=4). Possible score: 106=85%; 88=50%; 70=15%; 97=70%; 78=30% A higher score shows a stronger tendency to postpone tasks. If you have a score of 70, it means that 70% of people have less of a tendency than you to postpone tasks.

Career counseling must take account At the growth stage of: Self-development: Support provided must lead to a positive vocational concept, to the understanding of stereotypes and to the realization of the fact that there are different roles in life; Provide the students the tools to develop a realistic image of themselves; Help the students test their concepts of self (especially the vocational concept); Help them develop the maturity needed to manage decisions at their respective stage (e.g. the transition to a higher education level, to life in the labor market, etc.); -Help them develop the skills required for decision making; - Expand their knowledge of labor.

And at the exploration stage:

How to look for a job

Making contact with people responsible for hiring new employees is critical since their decisions will influence our career path. In hiring new employees, most employers consider both the professional skills (qualifications, competences, performances) of job applicants well as their personal qualities such as behavior, education, style, manners etc.

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Exercise: ROLE-PLAY A JOB INTERVIEW Organize a role-play in which TSL participants play the role of job applicants first and then the people responsible for recruiting new employees at a business or company that is familiar to the group. Provide feedback. Tell the TSL participants in advance what their role will be in the simulation to give them time to prepare. Encourage the group to discuss the exercise and provide feedback about how TSL participants might improve their job interview performance. Provide details about the employment opportunities the student might have had if the interview had been real.

Exercise: PREPARING FOR YOUR JOB SEARCH Consider the following questions and check the answer that is appropriate: Do you know what you want from your life? What plans do you have for the future? Do you know the requirements of the job? Have you planned and organized a job search plan? Have you identified the people who can help you in looking for a job? Have you studied the job opportunities in the field you are interested in? If you answered NO to at least one question, you should improve your job search skills. Yes No

When you read job ads you may notice that almost all employers require minimum work experience of two to three years. Employers believe that experienced people make fewer mistakes than those without experience. They also believe that experienced people understand a job and therefore can do a job much better than inexperienced people. People with experience dont need to be trained since they are already familiar with the job. Thus, employers often prefer to hire people with experience, although it implies some disadvantages as well. Experienced people have already developed a certain way of working, which means that they are not necessarily open to doing the job a different way, which might be cheaper, faster or better. In other words, experienced workers who are set in their ways can become a problem when circumstances require them to learn new skills or approach their job differently.

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Many studies show that people with a better educational background have three times the odds of being offered a job and being well-paid than those who do not have a university degree.

Skills are a very important employment criterion because they demonstrate capacity to perform certain tasks. There are different skills:

General skills: These are used in practically every kind of job. They include
reading and writing, as well as communication and management.

Technical skills: These refer to practical skills and specialized knowledge in

the field of mechanics, industry and science.

Team work skills: refer to the ability to work successfully together with other

Depending on the nature of work, the ability to combine different skills is in advantage in searching for job.

Exercise: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE The purpose of the activity is to raise awareness about different possibilities and developing decision-making and problem-solving skills. The activity also can be a valuable tool for selfassessment. 1. Ask the participants to group in pairs and give them time to share their dreams with their partner. Encourage them to talk about hopes, worries, etc. 2. Ask participants to draw or write on a sheet of paper their wishes for the future in the following four areas: Changes in the look (appearance), Changes in personality (character, behavior), Status, social role (profession, position in the society), Changes in the lifestyle.

3. Provide time for the participants to record their wishes and then ask them to share them with the group. Ask the participants not to make any judgments about the expressed wishes. 4. Ask participants to the respond to the following questions: Which changes do you consider to be the most important and why? What would you like to change most about your lifestyle?

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What concerns you most about your future? What can you do to address your worries? Where and from whom could you seek help to address your worries?

Developed by learning and practicing, skills turn into capacities and through practical application and automation, capacities become habits. This chain of transformation illustrates the process by which skills become operational, evolving from a potential into a reality. Each person has special skills. However, it is difficult for many people to recognize and highlight them or to build a career around them. We can, however, identify unrecognized capacities in peoples expressions as "I know how to I can I am good at"

A comprehensive classifications of skills, includes: Verbal and written language comprehension skills; Verbal and written expression; Fluency of ideas; Sensitivity to problems; Numeric skills; Memory skills; Flexibility in classification; Spatial orientation; Perception speed; Coordination; Distributional attention; Static force; Spatial representation; Manual dexterity.

Skills Assessed by Em ployers Cooperation Empathy Calm Ability to adapt to change Ability to plan ones own work Takes initiative Tolerance Analytical Accepts responsibility Diplomacy Discretion Insight

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Loyalty Observation Fairness Strength in defending principles Conscientious Imagination

Expresses self clearly Pleasant disposition Ability to acquire new skills Targeting progress and selfimprovement Respectful Works well in a team

Emotional stability Enthusiasm Honesty Effectiveness in carrying out tasks Able to make decisions Motivated

Labor market conditions

The number of jobs available in the labor market during a job search will have a huge impact on your chances of finding a job. If the supply of available jobs is low and the demand is high, your chances of finding a job will be very small. For this reason young people need better-developed skills and knowledge to get a job.

How employers select new employees

Employers have to select a new employee from a large number of candidates. Why should they choose you? What makes you different from others? Do you know what employers are looking for? Here are some of the criteria on which employers select the candidates.

Experience and education: Your education and experience should relate to

the job for which apply. Educational level and experience are indicators to prospective employers that you want to learn more and gain work experience in the field.

Appearance: An untidy person will make a bad impression on prospective

employers. An employer is looking for people dressed tastefully who seem secure with themselves. Prospective employers pay close attention to how candidates are dressed, how they speak as well as their attention to detail.

Confidence: An employer looks for people who are sure of their ideas and
skills. They believe that self-confident people are more capable of making important decisions in critical moments.

Qualities: The maturity level of the employee is also considered.

Prospective employers look for employees who are stable, cooperative and reliable. They also consider a candidates aspirations, motivation and ambitions.

Previous experience: Employers tend to recruit people who have wellarticulated and clear professional goals.

All of these factors in addition to labor market conditions will impact directly on the chances of finding a job. And because there are many people seeking work, it is important to make an effort to get noticed from prospective employers

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What do you have to offer employers?

Most of us tend to be unaware of all of the full range of qualities and skills that we possess. Your success in finding a job depends on how you present yourself, what you can do now and what you can learn in the future. For this reason, every job search must begin with your. You must be certain about the specific skills you have to offer a prospective employer in addition to your unique qualities, qualifications and experience. We all have skills! We dont always recognize this, but it is a fact that we all have certain skills or personal tools that are used in your day-to-day activities and work. Tending to a garden, for instance, requires skills such as cutting grass, planting seeds and calculating the money earned from selling the grown tomatoes at the local market. Write on a sheet of paper five skills that you have that you believe might be of value to a prospective employer. Refer to these skills as qualities and strengths" in resumes and CVs.

Basic skills that all employees must have: Reading Numeric (mathematics, calculation) Communication Organization and administration Teamwork Problem identification and resolution Research (looking for and using information used in analysis)

The list of the most important qualities a person should have:

Adaptability Clarity Confidence Creativity Enthusiasm Enterprising Imagination Leadership Kindness Organization

You adapt to changes easily. You can express your thoughts and communicate easily. Self-confident and sure of your skills. Able to create something new and original. You show interests towards different things. Demonstrate initiative and willing to learn new things. Like to discover new things and new solutions. Able to lead skillfully. You are friendly and considerate with others. You have an ordered an efficiently approach to tasks.

Positive outlook You always see the positive side.

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Responsibility Capable of important duties, independent decisionmaking or taking control over people and tasks.

Qualifications and experience

You must be able to identify and enumerate qualifications and experience during a job search. Remember, learning and gaining experience doesnt only happen in school. People learn every day through a variety of activities and many times people learn things that are not even related to their primary career specialization. Throughout life, you gain experience. Think of your most valuable experiences and try to think about how they might be important in a future profession.

Exercise: IDENTIFYING PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE Questions School Have you planned a school event (concert, sport competition)? What experience did you gain? Have you taken care of children or household activities? What experience did you gain? Have you participated as a volunteer in community projects or activities? What experience did you gain? Have you earned money working as a gardener, guardian, seller, car washer or another kind of work? Have you helped community or family members with their work? What experience did you gain? Experience




It is not enough to be able to describe your skills, qualities, education and experience; you must be able to "sell" yourself to find work in a highly competitive labor market. For this reason, you must have a very good idea of the skills and qualities you possess to choose a job that is right for you.

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Exercise: DISCOVER YOUR SKILLS, QUALITIES, QUALIFICATION AND EXPERIENCE The purpose of the activity is to identify skills, qualities, qualifications and experience to assess opportunities for finding specific jobs as well as how they apply in various scenarios. Activities Preparing for exams Participating in sports and organizing sport activities Organizing concerts or other events Class head Representing the student council Organizing extra-curricular activities Skills Planning Organizing Problem solving Communicating Negotiating Reading Writing Delegating Qualities Patient Conscientious Empathic Determined Persistent Creative Persuasive Enthusiastic Takes risks Motivated Precise Adaptable Creative Conscientious Responsible Cooperative Honest Reliable Diligent Team player

Think of the activities you do at home: Cook; Clean the house; Buy products; Pay for services; Take part at family events, such as weddings, birthdays; Make beds, wardrobes and other pieces of furniture; Fix or repair things in the yard or home. Think of the activities you took part in within the community: Organizing or judging sporting events; Participating at a community group; Community research;

Making decisions Taking initiative Technical aspects Making arrangements Manual work Communication Organizing Planning Managing a budget

Innovation Administration Negotiation Problem solving Conflict resolution Following instructions Using computer

Determined Persistent Creative Persuasive Enthusiastic Artistic Takes risks

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Think of the activities you took part in within the community: Organizing or judging sporting events; Participating at a community group; Community research; Community campaigns aiming at fighting crime or other social problems; Organizing demonstrations; Buying or selling products for the community; Settling conflicts.

Innovation Administration Negotiation Problem solving Conflict resolution Following instructions Using computer

Determined Persistent Creative Persuasive Enthusiastic Artistic Takes risks Motivated Precise Adaptable Able to works alone and as a team

Critical thinking Inventive Remember past work experience (at a permanent Problem solving Safe or temporary job): Technical skills Independent Gardening; Manual work skills Punctual Cleaning; Planning Supportive Packaging; Organizing Spontaneous Factory work; Budgeting Team player Supervision; Communicating Reliable Construction; Training Motivated Providing private or Delegating Conscientious public services; Exercise: SKILLS, QUALITIES, QUALIFICATION AND EXPERIENCE Decisions making Confident Kitchen; SUMMARY Documenting record Sale or purchase; Summarize your Summarize your Specify your Describe your Organizing/supervising Projectthe management. skills, from qualities, from the professional previous experience Managing money most to the least most to the least qualifications and specify the important: important: period during which you worked a)_____________ ____________ Higher education or vocational training: 1._________ 2_________ Post-graduate education and Full-time: 1._____ 2______ Part-time: 1.______

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training courses: 1._______ 2._______

2.______ Cumulated:

General education or 1.______ vocational training: 2______ 1.______ 2.______ Leadership: 1._____ 2._____ Training programs: 1______ 2______ Other:

The path to employment

Upon identifying your skills, qualities, qualifications and experience, you should be more certain about what you can offer a prospective employer and able to present yourself in the best light. But how and where to start looking for a job? What are the necessary steps to get a job interview? If you are invited for a job interview, what do you then? There are no guaranteed recipes for success when it comes to getting a job. However, there are some steps that you can take to improve your chances of finding your desired job.

Step 1: Look for help and organize yourself.

Find a person who knows you, either personally and professionally, is aware of your qualities, skills and qualifications and would be willing to recommend you to prospective employers. Recommendations are very important to most employers. The person making the recommendation should be willing to be contacted by prospective employers. They may include head instructors or instructors who know you very well. Also if you have job experience, you can use a contact from your previous place of employment. Find at least two people who are willing to provide you with a good reference, be sure to have their correct name, job title, and contact information to include with your CV if requested by prospective employers. Find a mentor with whom you can talk about the difficulties encountered searching for a job and seek their advice and support. Choose two mentors to you who give you the following type of information and support:

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Mentors provide:


About job opportunities. About places where information can be found. How to look for a job. How to write a CV. How to approach people and organizations to apply for jobs. About skills and qualities that need improving. Encouragement in moments of frustration. Provision of money to cover expenses associated with traveling to the place where the interview is held. Support and assurance in your own skills and qualities.



Mentors are leaders instructors, directors, police officers or others who have many years of experience. It is very important that the mentor you choose has experience in searching for a job or has had a stable job for a long period of time. Think of three people who might be your mentors and write their names below: 1. _______________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _______________________________________ After identifying possible mentors, you should approach them. Explain to them that you would like to find a job and that you would appreciate their support and assistance. Make them understand that your intentions are very serious and that you are sincerely interested in their advice. Make sure that the mentors you choose are prepared to meet you often to discuss your progress. One of the keys to a successful job search is being well-organized. Advertisements clipped from newspapers or phone numbers written on small pieces of paper can easily be lost. Create a "job search" folder that you can use to keep absolutely all documents and papers related to your job in one place. This folder will also help to ensure the documents remain pristine. Your "job search" folder should include: CV; Copies of identity documents; Copies of diplomas, degrees and other documents confirming educational or training credentials;

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Copies of all written application letters; Ads for jobs to which you applied; Details about possible interviews; Individuals and organizations that you contact when you need information; Research about possible jobs and employers.

Plan your job search.

Set goals and objectives by first of all listing things you do every day in support of your job search. For example, you have resolved to speak to at least three people about job opportunities and to scan the job advertisements in at least one daily newspaper every day, to update your resume at least once a month, to check in every few days with the closest employment office to find out about new employment opportunities. Make an agenda with the description, listing and mapping of activities that you intend to do every day. The agenda should not be too complicated, so you are can easily find the information you need and make new notes. See below for an example. Finally, it is important to record everything you do in support of your job search. Make notes about the activities that you need to follow up on. Keeping a list of the things youve done will help you pinpoint the things you havent done yet.

Date: _________________

Important things to do every day: __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

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Activities: 7:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 9:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 11:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 12:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 13:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 15:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 17:00 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Step 2: Identify and assess job opportunities:

You must be a proactive to carry out job search activities. You cant wait for someone to tell you what to do or to remind you to do something. Remember, there are many others looking for a job as well. A job will not come to you magically finding a job requires a great deal of effort that requires you not only to find job opportunities but also to evaluate each opportunity to determine whether the position would be a good fit for you and you are a good candidate for the job. It is very important to draw upon a range of resources to help uncover job vacancies, such as: Source of information Type of information

Family and friends:

Family and friends are an important source of information. Your odds of finding a job are three times higher if you live with someone who is already employed. Ask family members and friends who are working to notify you about vacancies at their work place and ask them to introduce you to people who might be able to assist you in your job search. Employment ads and signs often are posted in public places, such as food shops. Look up the telephone numbers of employers your region in the telephone book. Call or go in person to talk to people responsible for recruitment. Find the phone numbers of companies or organizations you are interested in and call them. Talk to the person responsible for recruitment. Tell them what kind of job you are interested in and what you can offer them. You can also go directly to the company or schedule a meeting. Public libraries are an important source of information about possible job opportunities. Ask the librarian about how to use the library to support your job search. Public local administration officials sometimes have valuable information about companies or organizations that are recruiting employees or about employment projects in the community. Find out from the local office of the National Employment Agency if there is an employment center near you. If so, use it to find information about employment opportunities.

Help wanted signs: Telephone directory:

Local companies:

Public libraries:

Local public administration offices:

Employment centers:

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Most newspapers have a special section dedicated to employment. Clip newspaper ads and keep them in your Job search folder. Listen to local radio programs for leads about jobs. There are often announcements on the radio about the opening of new companies or launch of government projects.


Step 3: Job assessment:

The first step in assessing whether a job vacancy is appropriate for you is to speak to people who know more about the vacancy and the company. Try to talk to one to two people who work for the prospective employer. Then assess whether your skills, personal qualities and qualifications are a good match using the matrix below.

Assessing job opportunities What skills are required?

Job ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

You ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

What qualities are required?

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

What experience is required?

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Will you work with other people?

Yes No

Yes No Yes No

Does the position imply responsibility?

Yes No

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Is it a full-time or a part-time position

Full-time Part-time

Full-time Part-time

Data about the job: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Data about the company: What goods or services does the company provide? ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ When was the company established? ____________________________________

Starting a job
Being offered a job is very exciting, but also challenging. The first few months can be very difficult, particularly if you have no experience. Some of the things to consider better understand your roles and responsibilities and the expectations of the employer: Negotiation of employment conditions. Job description; Working hours; Salary; Overtime requirements (how the overtime work is remunerated/compensated); Holidays; Resolving conflicts between employer and employees.

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Establishing relationships
It is important to introduce yourself to the work team and become more familiar with your colleagues. Dedicate your first day to establishing relationships. The person to whom you report, your supervisor, is very important so make an effort to get to know him or her. Find out how your supervisor would prefer you work, if you are allowed to make suggestions and take the lead. Make a point of learning all you can about the job from your co-workers. Finally, if you learn that you were not chosen for the job, do not blame the employer Job search checklist I have reviewed what the employer needs: Experience and education. Professional skills. Physical appearance. Qualifications.

Discover yourself: I have identified the jobs I am interested in pursuing. I have identified my qualities. I have identifies my educational qualification. I have identifies my work experience.

I have identified information sources. I have researched and reviewed information about prospective jobs and employers. Organization: I have planned my job search. I have all the necessary documents. I have created a job search folder. I have made an agenda.

Application package: I have prepared a sample intention letter. I have prepared a CV. I have submitted CV and intention letters. I have completed an application form. I have submitted the application form.

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Preparation for the interview: I have assessed the time necessary to arrive on time. I have taken care to have a neat and tidy appearance. I have prepared all the necessary documents. I have prepared answers to questions that may be asked. I have prepared a list of questions I want to ask the prospective employer.

During the interview: I have arrived in on time. I am self-confident and I answered the questions. I paid attention to my body language. I answered all questions concisely and concretely; I maintained eye contact with the employer; I was honest in answering even the most difficult questions.

Personal marketing
What distinguishes those who have successful careers from those who never seem to get anywhere in their professional lives is a desire to succeed and to be competent at their job. For them, a career is than just a job or a means of subsistence. Successful people know what they want from life and insist on feeling fulfilled from their job. Exercise: PERSONAL PORTFOLIO Ask the TSL participants to prepare a personal portfolio. Review all of the portfolios and provide feedback about the strengths and weaknesses of each. Present the best portfolios to the group. Searching for a job is a skill itself. The following self-analysis is designed to test if applicants have the stamina required to find a job.

QUIZ: Testing perseverance Imagine yourself in every one of the following situations and note how likely you are to react in the described way. If you have never looked for a job until now, answer depending on how you would ideally act. 1. When I am asked about my experience, I only mention my paid jobs.

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2. If I heard about an interesting job vacancy, I would find it difficult to solicit more information. 3. I would ask an employer that does not have any vacancies whether they know of any other employers who might have vacancies. 4. I reduce my level of qualification so that the employer does not think that I am more qualified than I am. 5. I would prefer going to a recruitment agency than approaching an employer directly. 6. Before a job interview I would contact an employee who works for the prospective employer to find out more about the position. 7. I hesitate asking questions when I am interviewed for a position. 8. I avoid contacting potential employers by telephone or in person because I feel they are much too busy to talk to me. 9. If the person who is interviewing me for a job were late, I would leave or arrange another meeting. 10. I think that an experienced professional counselor has a better idea than I do about the positions I should apply for. 11. If an office manager tells me that a potential employer is too busy to meet me, I would stop trying to contact that employer. 12. Getting the job I want is, to a great extent, an issue of luck. 13. I would rather contact the person I want to work for directly than get in touch with the employers human resource department. 14. I hesitate to ask instructors or my employers to write recommendation letters for me. 15. I would not apply for a job if I do not have all the qualifications listed in the job description. 16. I would request a second interview with a prospective employer if I felt that the first one didnt go well. 17. I hesitate to contact an organization unless I know that they have a vacancy. 18. If I were not offered a job that I have been interviewed for, I would ask the employer how I could improve my chances of being selected for a similar position. 19. I do not feel good about asking my friends about job vacancies. 20. In such an unstable labor market, Id accept any job that is offered to me. 21. If the human resource department refuses to select me for an interview even though I am convinced I am qualified for the position, I would contact the employer I want to work for directly. 22. I would rather go to interviews with recruitment organizations that come to the university campus or at job fairs than contact prospective employers directly. 23. If the person interviewing me for a job says: I will contact you as soon as an opportunity arises, I conclude that there is nothing more I can do.

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24. I would consider all job offers before deciding what kind of job I like. 25. I hesitate to contact someone I do not know to learn information about careers in areas I am not interested in.

SCORE: very unlikely = 1; unlikely = 2; somehow unlikely = 3; somehow likely = 4; likely = 5; very likely = 6 Add the scores for the following statements: 3, 6, 9,13, 16, 18 and 21. The other statements have an inverse score. To obtain the score in case of these statements, deduct 7 from the value you indicated. Note the results and calculate the total score obtained for the two groups of statements. The statements with an inverse score are: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7,8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. SCORE: 90, 98, 106, 116, and 124 Percentage SCORE: 15, 30, 50, 70, and 85 Higher scores show higher perseverance in the search for a job. If, for example, you have 70 percentage score, this means that 70% of people have a lower perseverance in looking for a job than you. Exercise: SHIPWRECKED Ask the TSL participants to imagine that during a trip (at sea or in outer space) their ship is destroyed and they are must choose what sort of job they will have in the new society builder, engineer, doctor, instructor, priest, driver etc. Ask them to discuss why they chose a particular profession? Is their choice of occupation linked to their own qualities, skills and abilities? What do they know about the occupation they chose? Encourage the participants to ask questions to learn more about the occupations and to research occupations if they are curious to find out more. Suggest that they create profiles for the jobs that interest them most, such as the following: Example: Secretary Position: A secretary provides assistance to a manager by carrying out administrative tasks. Duties and powers: A secretary performs the following tasks: answers phone calls and passes them on, establishes and keeps records of manager meetings, archives correspondence and official company documents, liaises with clients, edits commercial correspondence, prepares agendas for meetings, participates in business meetings and organizes protocol activities for business meetings and conferences. In some cases, depending on the company, the secretary may also be responsible for staff recruitment and supervision, primary accounting and management of accounting documents and office supplies. Requirements: In Moldova, a secretary must know Romanian and one or more foreign languages, be able to use the computer, be able to express information accurately, be able

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to manage stress and have the ability to complete projects on deadline. The tasks of a secretary vary depending upon the size and the field in which the employer operates.

Understanding stereotypes
Career choices often are based not on the desire to do something that brings satisfaction and fulfillment, but a desire to earn money and exercise power. Sometimes profitable jobs are compatible with a persons personal and professional qualities, but not always. When exploring career options, be sure to explore and, if necessary, challenge perceptions about work such as what TSL participants regard as clean work versus dirty work, womens work versus men's work, physical work versus intellectual work etc. Discuss with TSL participants how they categorize professionals.


Unemployment does not mean the end of a career or the end of the world. It is an unpleasant event like so many others that a person might encounter in life, which passes and is forgotten if the person is prepared. It can be overcome through perseverance in seeking a subsequent job and through retraining. Discuss this issue with TSL participants and ask them to prepare their own action plan in the event of unemployment. Analyze and evaluate the plans as a group.

Labor laws
Most people who are looking for a job arent familiar with national laws governing the labor market or the rights and obligations of employees and employers etc. Ask TSL participants to review the national Labor Code and discuss articles contained in the code that are of particular interest or relevance. Have a discussion about working abroad and the Labor Code provisions that govern working abroad. Article 100. Duration of daily work (1) Normal duration of daily work is eight hours. (2) For employees under the age of 16, the duration of daily work cannot exceed five hours. (3) For employees aged 16 to 18 for employees performing working activities in harmful working conditions, the duration of daily work cannot exceed seven hours. Article 103. Night work Night work is considered work performed between 22.00 and 6.00. (5) Night work is not permitted for persons under the age of 18, pregnant women, women who are on postnatal holiday, women having children under the age three, and also persons, for whom such work is contra-indicated for medical reasons. Article 105. Restriction of overtime work

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(1) Engagement in overtime work is not permitted for employees under the age of 18, pregnant women, women who are on postnatal holiday, women having children under the age of three, and also persons for whom such work is contra-indicated, according to the medical conclusion. Article 110. Work on days off (3) Engagement of employees in labor activities on days off is not permitted for employees under the age of 18, pregnant women, women who are on postnatal holiday, and women having children under the age of three. Article 115. Modality of granting annual paid holiday (1) Paid holidays for the first year of work is provided to employee after six months of continuous work at the enterprise. (2) Paid holiday for the first year of work is provided under the written application, before the expiration of six months of work at the enterprise, to the following categories of workers: a) To women - before the maternity leave or directly after it; b) To employees under the age of 18; c) To other employees, according to current legislation. Article 116. Schedule of holidays (4) To workers under the age of 18, to women having two or more children under the age of 16 and to single parents, having a child under the age of 16, annual paid holiday are provided in summertime or upon their written application in any other season. Article 118. Annual granting of paid holidays, exceptional cases of its transference (4) Non-granting of annual paid holiday for two years consecutively, and also non-granting of annual paid holiday to employees under the age of 18 and to employees having the right to additional holiday in connection with work in harmful conditions, is forbidden. Article 121. Annual additional paid holidays (1) Employees working in harmful conditions, blind persons and youth under the age of 18, benefit from the right to an annual paid holiday, for duration of not less than four calendar days. Chapter IV REMUNARATION FOR SPECIAL WORK CONDITIONS

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Article 152. Remuneration of employees under the age of 18 and other categories of employees with reduced duration of daily work: (1) In cases of time (hour, day, week, month) - work payment, employees under the age of 18 are paid wages with a view of reduced duration of daily work. (2) Work of minors, who are performing piecework, is paid according to the piecework quotations, established for adult employees. (3) Payment of pupils and participants of educational institutions of the system of secondary education, specialized secondary education and vocational education under the age of 18, working during free time from their study, is made proportionally to the time of work performance or by piece -work. (4) In the cases stipulated by paragraphs (1) - (3), the employer can establish on the account of his own means, an increase to the wage rate for the time, on which the duration of daily work of minors is reduced in comparison with the duration of daily work of adult employees. (5) Payment of other categories of employees, for whom in conformity with art. 96, the reduced duration of daily work is established, is carried out according to the conditions of payment of work, established by the Government. WORK OF PERSONS AGED UNDER E18 Article 253. Medical examinations of employees under the age of 18 (1) Workers who have not reached the age of 18 are accepted to work only after a preliminary medical examination. Until the age of 18 they will undergo the medical examination annually. (2) Charges in connection with the medical examination are on the account of the employer. Article 254. Work norm for employees under the age of 18: (1) The work norm for employees under the age of 18 is established, proceeding from the general norms of work proportionally reduced to the working hours established for this category of workers. (2) Employees under the age of eighteen, are employed after finishing the general secondary school, lyceum, professional and vocational school, and the employer establishes for them reduced norms of work, according to the legislation in force, collective agreements and the collective labor contract. Article 255. Labor activities forbidden for persons under the age of 18 (1) Persons under the age of 18 are forbidden to perform heavy work and work in harmful and/or dangerous working conditions, underground work, and also work that can cause harm to their health and their moral integrity (gambling, work in night institutions, manufacture, transportation and trade in alcoholic drinks, tobacco products, narcotic and toxic products). Lifting and carrying weights, exceeding the limit rates established for them is not permitted.

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(2) The list of heavy work and work in hazardous and/or dangerous conditions, labor activities that are forbidden for persons under the age of eighteen, and also lifting and carrying weights, exceeding the limit rates established for this category of persons is approved by the Government after consultation with the patronages and trade unions. Article 256. Prohibition of directing on official journey workers under the age of 18 Directing on official journey workers under the age of 18is forbidden, except for employees from audio-visual institutions, theatres, circuses, cinema, theatrical and concert organizations, and also organizations of professional sportsmen. Article 257. Additional guarantees to workers under the age of 18, regarding their dismissal Dismissal of workers under the age of eighteen, is permitted only with the written approval of the territorial employment agency and the territorial commissions for minors, observing the general conditions of dismissal, stipulated by the present code, with the exception of cases of enterprise liquidation. Article 318. Restriction of continuous shift work (1) Persons under the age of 18, pregnant women, women on postnatal holiday, women having children under the age three, and also persons for whom work in continuous shifts is contra-indicated, for medical reasons are not permitted to perform continuous shift work Article 337. Worker's full liability (3) Workers under the age of 18 carry full liability only for deliberate causing of damage, and also for material damage, caused in the condition of alcoholic, narcotic or toxic intoxication, established in the order stipulated by item k) art. 76, or for a committed crime.

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The main purpose of this section is to introduce TSL participants to a variety of techniques, strategies and methods that facilitate communication and resolve conflict. Instructors should have a deep understanding about interpersonal communication and a living model for effective communication and being sure to always "do" what he or she says.

TSL participants should be able to:

Use tools for efficient communication such as perception analysis, empathy and positive motivation in their daily life. Identify communication barriers and their consequences. Understand constructive techniques for conflict resolution. Communication is fundament to human existence. We communicate via verbal and non-verbal language, through words, ideas, concepts, images and notions that facilitate the emotional expression of human behavior. Communication functions include information; command and training; influence and conviction, guiding and advice; and integration and maintenance. The communication process includes the following basic elements: Transmitter; Message; Means of communication/transmission channel; Communication language; and, Receiver.





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Human communication can take different shapes and forms, use stimuli and signals belonging to one of the following language categories. Paraverbal language is based on stimuli and signals transmitted by the tone and volume of the voice and the rhythm of expression. Non-verbal language represents stimuli and signals transmitted through physiognomy, mimics, gestures and posture etc. The role of paralanguage (tone, intonation and accent) as part of non-verbal language (i.e. message transmitted from one person to another through ways different than the linguistic one) is to support verbal messages and to stress, replace or contradict them. There are five different levels of communication: intrapersonal; interpersonal; group; public; and, mass. Creating an effective intrapersonal relationship is required for self-rule and genuine success. Doing so requires balancing emotions and listening to the intuitive inner voice. The path from uncontrolled emotion to reason (attention, awareness) and then to intuition is one of the keys to self-development as well as effective communication with others.

Interpersonal communication is a dialogue that takes place exclusively between two

parties. Interpersonal communication meets our need for affection and recognition of personal values, but also the need to control, dominate, impose ones own will on and lead or influence others. Through this type of communication human relationships are established, maintained and sometimes destroyed. Interpersonal communication involves understanding ones own being, the way we think, feel and behave and why we do so, how we learned to be the way we are, if our thoughts, feelings and behavior are useful or not. Communication in an intimate environment, within a team, crew, and family or even within a small circle of friends is known as group communication . An individual spends much of his or her social and professional life within these sorts of groups, sharing knowledge and personal experiences, solving problems, creating and easing conflicts, developing new ideas, invent and making important decisions. Any kind of speech, expression or presentation delivered to an audience of no less than three people is public communication . This category includes conferences, oral arguments, lectures and courses, sales presentations, scientific communications, reports presentations, expressions, speeches among others. The public can be divided into several categories:

Hostile contesting or opposing the discourse either actively or passively; Neutral understands the discourse but remains uninterested, unmotivated
and uninvolved and is neither for nor against it;

Indecisive understands the discourse, but has not yet decided whether to
support or contest it;

Uninformed does not have all of the information needed to form an

opinion about the discourse;

Supportive agrees to or approves of discourse irrespective of whether it

understands or has sufficient information. Various communication techniques may be used, including:

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Manuscript reading pre-prepared text that is usually rigid and official and
not effective at establishing a rapport with the public, but it is difficult to avoid in political or diplomatic discourse, when improvisation may have serious consequences;

Memorization repeating a prepared speech that has been memorized

word for word, allowing for some spontaneity;

Improvisation does not exclude speeches prepared in advance, but

deliberately includes spaces in the speech to be "filled" spontaneously with words that are tailored for the public, environment and circumstances allowing for a more natural delivery and establishing a rapport with the public;

Impromptu though it is risky to make a speech without any preparation it is

impossible to avoid in some circumstances such as roundtables, meetings or interviews.

Production and dissemination of written, spoken, visual or audiovisual messages to a large and varied audience is called mass communication and includes many different medium such as books, newspaper and audio-visual. The message, which may be delayed, weak and incomplete, is delivered via either a hot or cold medium.

There are no contrdictions


Contrdictions exist between levels


How to be understood
Before the presentation anticipate the size of the audience, its structure, age, education, level of experience and circumstances in the field.

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During the presentation gauge the audience based on its direct or indirect feedback. The look and image of the speaker should be considered part of the message in oral communication.

Exercise: Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, Nobody Discuss the following parable in class and highlight its significance in the field of communication. Four people that we will call: Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, Nobody have to work together on a task assigned to Everybody. Everybody was certain that Somebody would do it and that Anyone could do it, but Nobody did. For this reason, Someone was upset because it was Everyone's responsibility. Everybody thought that Anybody could do it, but Nobody realized that Everybody would not. In the end Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could do.

Effective listening requires you to:

1. Stop speaking. You cannot listen while speaking. 2. Encourage the other person to feel free to speak. 3. Tell the interlocutor that you are eager to listen and demonstrate your interest in doing so. 4. Remove disturbances. 5. Be constructive. Try to understand the point of view of others even if you have another point of view. 6. Be patient and do not interrupt the speaker. 7. Stay calm. An angry person is more prone to interpret the meaning of words negatively. 8. Be cautious with criticism and counter arguments. 9. Ask questions. They encourage the speaker and show that you indeed are listening.

Active listening techniques

Encouragement: Express your interests; encourage the person to talk and

do not express your approval/disapproval initially; and, use neutral words and various intonations.

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Clarification: Clarify what they are telling you; ask for more information;
Help the person speaking see other points of view as well and ask questions; and, refer interpretations that are incorrect to force the person to continue explaining.

Restarting: Show that you are listening and understand what is being told to
you; control what you understand and interpret; and, refer back to essential ideas and facts.

Reflection: Demonstrate that you can understand other peoples feelings;

help other people assess their own feelings after they have heard them expressed by someone else; and, reflect on the basic feelings of the person who talks.

Summing up: Identify progress; collect the most important ideas and facts;
set the basis for next discussions; and, refer back to the main ideas expressed, including the other persons feelings.

Validation: Acknowledge the other persons value; acknowledge the value

of the other persons ideas and feelings; and, express your appreciation for his or her efforts and actions.

Exercise: "Joharis window" YOU Known by you OTHER Known to others Unknown to others ARENA FACADE Unknown by you BLIND ZONE The unknown

Divide participants into groups of four or five people. Instruct one group to complete the ARENA, another to complete the BLIND AREA and so. Then complete FAADE and read comments in BLIND AREA. In the end, each will notify the other about how each window was filled in and will draw conclusions. ARENA contains information that you and others know and is the basis for your relationships with others. The size of the arena shows the quality of relationships. When information is exchanged, communication is facilitated, enhancing interpersonal relationships. BLIND AREA contains information that others know about you, but you do not know because those who have it have not brought it to you attention. FACADE contains information known only to you such as future plans, ideas, emotional states, ideals, talents, etc. Given the desire for self-protection, this information is not told to others. Instead it is a "smokescreen" behind which to hide. UNKNOWN feelings, skills, talents that havent been discovered yet.

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The facilitator should reiterate the role stereotypes and prejudices play in communication and how they inhibit social relationships and integration. Stress that efficient communication implies: Listening to the speaker carefully and peacefully. Not interrupting the speaker. Not offending or contradicting, or taking criticism personally. Taking time to think before giving an important response. Settling conflicts openly. Expressing emotions in a constructive manner. Being calm, aware. Not being influenced by the status of others. Maintaining a wide variety of options. Being open to change.

Exercise: ARGUMENT-COUNTER-ARGUMENT Ask participants to divide into groups of four to five people to present arguments and counter-arguments in response to the following statements: If you laugh ... you risk seeming ridiculous. If you cry ... you risk seeming sentimental. If you express your feelings ... you risk exposing yourself. If you love ... you risk not being loved. If you try ... you risk failing. If you live ... you risk dying.

Exercise: PLANT, ANIMAL OR BIRD? 1. Organize participants in six groups. Explain that each group will be using gestures and making the sounds a plant, animal or bird makes. 2. Assign one of the following roles to each group: tree, mushroom, rabbit, eagle, hedgehog and butterfly. Participants perform the gestures and sounds of their assigned plant, animal or bird and the rest of the group must guess which plant, animal or bird they are, asking questions for clarification purposes only. 3. After their presentations, ask the participants to present a theatrical story with the characters listed above. The scenario must not exceed two minutes. 4. At the end of the activity ask the participants opinion about the activity:

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How did you communicate during the activity? What is the relationship between this activity and your work environment? What have you learned about teamwork from this activity?

Feedback means describing one persons behavior and the impact it has had on others. Frequent feedback allows TSL participants to exercise what they have learned. Useful feedback requires the following: Mutual trust; Receiving feedback as a joint experience; Careful listening, particularly by the person providing the feedback; Support for the person receiving the feedback.

Examples constructive feedback phrases

When you... Then describe the behavior without judging, exaggerating, labeling, assigning or motivating and only mention the facts. I feel that Then explain how the behavior affected you. If you need one or two words to describe how you feel, it is probably a variation of the feeling of joy, regret, anger or fear. Because I Then explain why it affected you the way it did. Describe the link between the behavior and the feelings it provoked in you. Break for discussion. Let the other person respond. I would like to Then describe the changes you would like to see the other person make. Because Then explain why you think the change would be positive. What do you think? Listen to the other persons answer. Be ready to discuss different possibilities and to compromise on the solution. Exercise: CONSTRUCT A TURTLE 1. Tell the participants that they will participate in creating a giant turtle using a cloth the size of a sheet, cardboard for the shell and their own bodies. 2. Allot 10 minutes for them to prepare. 3. Trace a line that representing the path that the turtle must take to reach the country where all her friends live. Set several obstacles on the path that the turtle will have to overcome.

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4. When the group has finished constructing the turtle, tell it to take the journey. 5. At the end of the exercise, ask the group the following questions: What do you thing about how the team worked together How did you feel when you were moving together? What was the most difficult obstacle in your way? How did you manage to overcome it? What would you change for the team to work together easier?

Techniques for asking questions

Usually questions are asked in order to obtain information or to clarify. Questions should be formulated in such a way that they do not seem threatening. Make sure you have a good reason to ask them, identify clearly what you want to find out, use non-verbal codes and accept responsibility for poorly formulated questions. Here are some tips on how to ask questions: Formulate questions clearly and concisely. The longer the question is, the more difficult it is to follow and to answer. It is much easier to answer short questions than the long ones; Asking several questions at the same time creates confusion. The listener will not know which question to answer and in what order; Take a break after posing a question. Time is required in formulating answers. When a question is not followed by time to think, listeners tend to avoid answering. If you do not receive a response, do not try to answer your own question. Instead, ask the question another way or ask a different question; Formulate open-ended rather than closed questions: open questions encourage more meaningful answers and start with what, why, how, when, where and who. Examples of open-ended questions, include: What do you think about what was said here? What expression did you observe on his or her face? How do you think you will feel after this seminar? When will you return?

Closed questions only allow for yes or no answers and can be loaded, guided or threatening. Voice tone or inflexion can suggest that the speaker already has an answer to the question when in fact he or she doesnt. An example of a guided or loaded question is, You agree, dont you? Ask the question in a positive manner: Instead of formulating the question: Why isnt this plan going well? ask, What problems will we have to face if we adopt this plan? Avoid questions that imply a right or wrong answer.

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Listen to the verbal answer and observe the non-verbal response to each question. Listen to yourself, including your words, tone and inflection. When you ask a question, be aware of your personal feelings, tension, body position, eye movement and mimicry. When you make a verbal response listen without interrupting, look at that person without losing sight of other group members.

Communication barriers
Barriers are obstacles that impede effective communication. They can produce unwanted effects or create bottlenecks in the communication process. Barriers to communication may include interruptions, fatigue and stress, but also prejudices and personality. Another barrier is reactive language that must be proactive to mitigate conflicts and address them properly. The following behaviors are considered barriers to effective communication: Tendency to judge, to approve or not to agree with interlocutors opinions. Communication can be hindered by the use of labels. Provision of solutions, either directly through advice or indirectly by using questions aggressively or in a condescending manner. Making orders elicits passive or aggressive reactions and leads to lower selfrespect in the person to which orders are given. Using threats. Obliging a certain response by saying, you should or you must, etc. Avoiding addressing an important issue. Trying to solve the communication problem by imposing logical arguments without taking into account important emotional factors like: this is what we will do...

Remember to avoid the common communication bottlenecks threats, orders, destructive criticism, insults giving orders, concealing information, interrogating, praising for the purpose of manipulation, diagnosing reasons or causes, unrequested advice, persuasion by appealing to logic, changing the subject, refusing to accept the problem and denial of a problem. Communication means Knowing and respecting yourself. Being aware of the needs of others. Being able to listen. Understanding the messages. Providing feedback. Being able to express feelings.

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Accepting conflicts. Resolving conflicts.

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The objective of lessons on career planning is to develop the skills to search for and find employment

TSL participants should be able to:

Write a good Curriculum Vitae. Write a good motivation/intention letter. Learn techniques to ace job interviews.

Preparing a CV and a motivation letter

A CV describes a person's education, qualifications and previous experience. Its purpose is to help a job seeker find a job by selling his or her skills and experience to prospective employers. The aim is to produce a CV that gets you to the next stage of the recruitment process, which may be an informal meeting or formal job interview. Understanding the types of CVs Type Use

CHRONOLOGICAL: Lists employment Most effective when applying for jobs in same line of work and your CV history in reverse chronological order. demonstrates a clear record of career progression. FUNCTIONAL: Highlights principal skills and Most useful for those seeking their first job or a change in career direction because the strengths rather than career history. emphasis is on transferrable skills rather than career history. ONE-PAGE SUMMARY: Summarizes your Most effective for senior managers or those career and displays your professional track looking for freelance or temporary work. May be expressly requested by some record. employers

A Curriculum Vitae should demonstrate your value to a potential employer by highlighting the attributes and skills you have to offer. To achieve its purpose, it must be well laid out, succinct and easy to understand. It must be clearly presented and completely free of error, which will show your motivation and focus. Always consider who the likely reader of your CV is going to be and be sure to tailor it for each application. Make sure that your CV is concise and easy to read. Make sure that your skills and achievements stand out.

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Make sure that your abilities are not obscured by too much detail. Make sure that your contact information is clear and remember to include your name, full address, as many telephone numbers as you can a work number if you can take calls there and a mobile number if you have one and your personal e-mail address if you have regular access to one. Make sure that you reveal only position information about yourself, that all of the information is accurate and true and remember that you may be asked about anything and everything you have included in your CV. Make sure that your CV reflects whom you are and expresses your personality. Make your experience and skills meet the requirements of the recruiter. Remember that employers look for enthusiasm and motivation. Remember that employers want to see your potential.

Exercise: MY LIFE 1. Give a sheet of paper and a pen or pencil to each participant. 2. Allot 10 minutes for participants to sketch everything related to their life, in chronological order: birth, childhood, education, interests, trips, participation at camps, seminars, concerts and preferred occupations. 3. Display each of the drawings on a board and give the participants the chance to talk among themselves about the drawings. 4. Ask participants to reflect on the following: Which events in you life have you sketched? Why? Does your drawing resemble the drawings of others in the group? Which of the events that you have drawn (or didnt draw) do you think will be useful to your future? How? Do you think it is important that for others to know certain details about you and your life? Why? What do you think about your drawing? What is common among the drawings of various participants? If participants have difficulty answering any of the questions, help them understand that their drawing is like a mini autobiography or Curriculum Vitae.

SAMPLE: Curriculum Vitae

Personal information Name, address and contact data
Elena Munteanu

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Alexandru e Bun nr. 15 Chiinu, MD 2012 tel. (022) 24 55 41

Job objectives the position you want to apply to Education

Objective: Work as a secretary. Education: 1991-1995 Communication Science Academy University of Bucharest, Specialization Public relations 1987-1991 High-school "M. Eminescu" Chiinu;

When and where you have worked and position you held

Professional experience 1995-1997 secretary at "Viitorul" Foundation 1994-1995 editor at Hyperion" printing house (literate translations from Italian): Assisting in technical translations from Italian and English of the films "Ecoteh" and "Flamingo Computer";

Your achievements in the field Most important professional skills

Successes and achievements Computer typing speed award Skills Italian language: written-spoken very well; English language: written-spoken very well computer editing (Write Perfect and Microsoft Word); Excellent communication skills Interests Internet explorer, basketball, reading

CV editing guidelines
Set aside enough time to prepare and revise your CV. Be prepares to edit, re-edit and revise your CV many times. Draw on all your experience in drafting your CV and then edit it down. Be sure to include all information that is specifically requested. If you are asked to provide a photo be sure it is one of high quality, preferable taken by a professional photographer.

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All information included in the CV must be true, verifiable and accurate. Avoid exaggerating. If you cannot justify what you write in your CV, you will lose credibility and minimize your odds of getting a job. Choose the words you use carefully. Be confident and business-like when describing your achievements. Showcase details that favor you. Be positive about what you can achieve in the future. Check each sentence carefully, word by word, and delete any unnecessary or irrelevant words. Take time to find alternative words and phrases to avoid being repetitious. Consistency and coherence: the structure and the logic of the whole text must be consistent. Check spelling, punctuation and your use of tenses. Avoid using humor as it may be misunderstood. Be sure your CV is legible, especially if handwritten. Use only one side of plain white unlined paper. Do not use colored paper or type. Use a computer template to help with the layout but not the content of your CV. Make several drafts using different formats and choose the one you like the best. Look at other peoples CVs for layout and presentation ides. Avoid acronyms that are not commonly known, use numerals and avoid using overly technical or foreign terms. Ask your friends to read your CV and comment on it.

Exam ples of skills to include in a CV Ability to work in a team Management Communication Leadership Conviction Planning Coordination Creation Editing Resourcefulness Practical ability Responsiveness Motivation Negotiation Efficiency Planning Organization Safety

When applying for a job, your letter of motivation or intention letter should demonstrate that you understand the nature of the job being advertised. It should tell the employer where you heard about the position, reinforce the idea that you are qualified for

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the job and indicate to the employer how to contact you. To stand out from the crowd of job seekers, it should also summarize why your application should receive serious consideration. You should tailor the content of the letter by picking out the key skills and experience that are required for the position and demonstrate how you match them, providing specific details about what makes you suitable for the job. The application must be written correctly, clearly, concisely and should be no longer than one page. A neat and well-written letter will give the impression that you are well organized and prepared.

Guidelines for editing the presentation/intention/application letter

The letter must not be longer than one page. Write short and concise paragraphs. Type your letter or write it on a computer if possible. Select an easily legible font. Do not send handwritten letters unless requested. Check spelling and punctuation. Avoid colored paper. Ask a friend to read the letter and give feedback. Make sure all information in the letter is verifiable and accurate. Be careful about style and especially grammar errors. Make sure to mention that you are eager to meet with the prospective employer in person.

SAMPLE 1: Intention Letter

Aleea VASILE GOLDIS Nr.3 BUCURESTI Tel:01-430 70 40 October 18, 2000 Mr. Director POP IOAN Municipal Hospital Bd. KOGALNICEANU Dear Mr. POP, Following the announcement in the newspaper "Evenimentul Zilei" dated October 16; I would like to apply to the position of secretary at the Child Community Support Association. In recent years I have gained experience in all activities related to office work such as typing, recording, reception and stenography.

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I understand the need for patience, sensitivity and understanding in working with children as I have worked with children who have social problems as a volunteer for a relief organization. I believe in the need for health education and I would be an enthusiastic and helpful member of the Municipal Hospital. Please contact me at phone no. 4307040 to schedule an interview at a time that suits you. Sincerely, IONESCU ALIN

SAMPLE 2: Intention Letter

Aleea Vasile Goldis Nr.3 Bucureti Tel. 01-430 7040 September 1, 2000 D-lui Director POP IOAN McDONALDS / Bd. Magheru 35

Dear Mr. POP, McDonald's is known for the great food it serves and its pleasant restaurant atmosphere. These things have impressed me whenever I have lunch there. I have recently completed a chef training course, where I learned the basics of working in the kitchen, food preparation and hygiene. But more than that, the course taught me the importance of teamwork and how much I enjoy working in a kitchen and preparing food. Now I am ready to bring my energy and enthusiasm to McDonald's restaurant.

Please contact me by phone at no. 430 70 40 to schedule an interview at a time that suits you.
Thank you in advance, Popa Nicolae

SAMPLE 3: Intention Letter

Aleea Vasile GOLDIS 3

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Bucureti TELEFON:430 7040 18 octombrie 2000 To Mr. Pop Director of DALLES bookstore Gheorghe POP Bd. Chiinu 89

Dear Mr. Pop,

It was with great interest that I read your advertisement for the position of seller at your bookstore in the October 16 edition of the newspaper ADEVARUL. I recently completed a sales specialist course that provided me with a solid foundation in sales. The 12 weeks of training included customer service, packaging, how to work confidently with people and using initiative to solve customer problems. I have always been fond of books and I am an avid reader who reads about 20 books a year. I think that my skills, experience and my enthusiasm will be an asset at your bookstore. DALLES bookstore is well known in Bucharest. During my visits to the bookstore, the wide range of books available and the friendly staff impressed me. I would be thrilled to work in such an interesting and stimulating work. You can contact at the phone number above to schedule an interview. I would be happy to meet with you to discuss this opportunity in more detail.
Sincerely, Ilona tefan

SAMPLE 4: Intention Letter

Dear Mr. Director _______________________________, I am writing concerning the announcement published in Romania Libera of 14 March 2000 about the recruitment of drivers. At the age of ....... years, I believe I have sufficient experience in the required field. I am a very responsible experienced driver. I worked as a taxi driver in Bucharest while completing computer and language (English) courses. I am interested in working as a driver at a largescale enterprise like yours.

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Please find attached my Curriculum Vitae, as requested in the job announcement. I would be happy to provide the requested documents on the day of the competition. As this date was not specified in the notice, I ask you kindly to let me know the date, time and place of the competition. Thank you. Dan Iosifescu, March 25, 2000 or: Mr. George Mocanu Dear Mr. Director, In response to your announcement in Romnia Liber newspaper on January 18, 1999, I am sending the attached Curriculum Vitae. I am responding to the request for applications because I am convinced I meet all of the requirements for the job as described in the advertisement. In addition, I am very interested in the possibilities that working for your company would bring. I would be grateful if you invited me for an interview to discuss the opportunity in more detail. Looking forward to meeting you, Mr. Director. Sincerely, Ionescu Alice

SAMPLE CV for participants

Personal information Surname: _________________________________________________________________________ First name: ________________________________________________________________ Birth date and place: ________________________________________________________ Current home address: ______________________________________________________ Contact phone number: ______________________________________________________ Civil status (married or unmarried)______________________________________________

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Children: __________________________________________________________________ Objective (position you apply for)_______________________________________________ General and professional education (reversed chronological order): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Specializations and professional training (reverse chronological order):

Professional experience: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Successes and achievements _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Competences (the most important professional skills, spoken languages, computer skills, communication skills;) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Hobbies/interests: _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Sample CV for young people

Personal information Surname: _________________________________________________________________ First name: ________________________________________________________________ Date and place of birth: ______________________________________________________ Current address___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Contact phone number: ______________________________________________________ Civil status (married or unmarried) Children: __________________________________________________________________ Objective: _________________________________________________________________________ General and professional education (reverse chronological order): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Participation at seminars, trainings, camps, summer schools, circles of interests/subject (reverse chronological order): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Professional experience:

Successes and achievements:

Competences (the most important professional skills, spoken languages, computer skills, communication skills): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________


SAMPLE: Presentation/intention letter

Home address: ___________________________ ___________________________

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___________________________ Contact phone number: ___________________________ Date and year the letter is sent: ___________________________ Mr. Director____________________________ Institution_____________________________________ Address of the institution_____________________________ Mr. (surname of director of the institution) _______________________ ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Sincerely ______________________ First and last name of the applicant

Terms to use and avoid

The choice of terms is very important in a CV. Every word counts and should be selected carefully. Look for words and terms that allow you to express your thoughts concisely. Avoid long and complicated phrases. Start by writing a phrase and then summarize and shorten it. Be sure to present yourself as positively as possible.

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Negative words to avoid Problem Difficulty/Difficult Fiasco Vices Failure/Fail Worry I dont know whom to ask Miss Expect Hope Embarrassed Wasnt able Didnt get to Im no longer motivated I dont know what to do Complex Doubt Trouble Give up Abandon Abdicate Boring Im no longer motivated Complicated

Inexact words and term s to avoid: Many Numerous Some Little Most Multiple Various Same Important Varied Vase Different

Recom m ended term s Covered Updated Adapted Administrated Brought Found out Improved Arranged Amplified Analyzed Competed Led Built Engaged Animated Involved Applied Supplied Arbitrated Assumed Balanced Saved Built Guided Discussed Distributed Calculated Sought Won Investigated Collaborated Ordered Sold Compounded Communicated Designed Edited Made Developed Decided Defined Finalized Delegated Launched Opened Determined Developed Diffused Decreased Created Increased Made Engaged Animated Involved Applied Supplied Arbitrated Assumed Balanced Saved Built Closed Entrusted Replaced

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Consulted Accounted Contacted Helped Convinced Cooperated Coordinated Exported Extended Participated Allowed Planned Said Expected Prepared Set Presented Presided Received Tested Did Produced Scheduled Recruited Regrouped

Diversified Acquired Finished Included Tried Concluded Rented Governed Imagined Implanted Imported Required Informed Initiated Innovated Installed Established Integrated Interested Interpreted Involved Interviewed Introduced Recovered Remunerated

Removed Issued Examined Executed Exercised Experienced Explored Accepted Worked Handled Measured Mobilized Mounted Negotiated Obtained Offered Organized Changed Selected Signed Recommended Increased Established Reduced Distributed

Billed Succeeded Generated Funded Fixed Provided Managed Designed Proposed Promoted Surveyed Published Coordinated Developed Restructured Summoned Managed Revised Solved Used Sold Invested Achieved Reformulated Represented

Strengthened Taken Learned Launched Liquidated Delivered Expanded Stabilized Mastered Stocked Structured Studied Undersigned Suggested Supervised Suppressed Supported Tested Transformed Treated Sent Stabilized Mastered Regulated Held

The job interview

A majority of employers consider the job interview to be the most effective way of determining whether they will hire a candidate. An invitation for a job interview is your chance to prove to a prospective employer that you are competent and a perfect fit for the position. When it comes to our own future, we would like to believe that the interview is a fair and accurate selection tool, but is this true? Studies have shown that the interview is a valid though far from precise selection tool, especially when the interviewer holds it in an

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unstructured and free style. Job interviews that follow a guide to sort and organized structure are more valid. Interviewers have a tendency to undervalue positive information about the candidate. The perceptions of the interviewer are influenced by the candidates who were interviewed earlier, leading to an exaggeration of the differences between candidates. For example, if an interviewer might classify a candidate lower when preceded by two excellent candidates as opposed to two average candidates. Whatever the format for the job interview or the perceptions of the interviewer, candidates usually have only opportunity to make a favorable impression and it is necessary to convince the employer usually in less time than it takes to transport yourself to the interview that you are the perfect candidate for the job.

Making a good impression on the employer

Make sure your appearance is neat and professional. Do not chew gum or smoke during the interview. Be punctual. Be sure to have extra copies of your CV and letters of reference or a typewritten list that includes the names, professions, addresses and telephone numbers for three references. If you graduated from an educational institution, provide a diploma. Be sure to smile when you meet the interviewer. Shake hands firmly. Take a seat after you are asked toand then sit up straight. Make eye contact throughout the interview. Listen carefully. Dont complain about anything and always accentuate the positive. Do not offer any personal information unless youre asked. Dont send signals that you are bored, uncomfortable or untruthful. Be direct and clear and use language your interviewer understands. Speak clearly and authoritatively when answering questions and know exactly what is listed on your resume. Send a thank you note immediately after the interview.

Your meeting with the employer should showcase your talents and accomplishments. Preparation is key in acing the interview. Practice answering the questions listed below. Tell me something about you. How would you describe yourself? What was your role at your previous job?

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What are your strengths and talents? What are your weaknesses? What would you like to be doing in 5 years? 10 years? 15 years? What is the most positive thing that a past employer has said about you? Why do you want this job? What is your salary range? What was your most important career lesson? What is your family situation? What is your relationship with your parents? Are you a member of any associations or clubs? What are your hobbies? Do you play any sports? What are your political and religious beliefs? What newspapers and magazines do you read? If you havent worked before, describe your achievements. Do you have any experience leading or supervising? Describe the sort of people you would like to work with? Why do you want to leave your current job? Describe how you feel working in a team. Why are you currently unemployed?

Be sure to ask some questions when you have the chance, which will depend upon the profile of the company, its domestic and foreign partners, the equipment and machinery it uses, what sort of opportunities there are for advancement.

Careful with body language

Body language is a universal and natural language, common of all people and, apparent from some small cultural differences, it is similar around the globe. Studies suggest that 70 percent of human communication is done through body language, which means, "a gesture really is worth a thousand words." Deep inspiration expresses the need for air or after tremendous, translating tension, anxiety or preparing for a confrontation. Expiration generally indicates relaxing, stress relief, but not only. If prolonged, it may indicate exhaustion or even a sigh. If short and quick, like a snort, it may reveal contempt, pride, and superiority. Information-bearing areas of the face are very important: the forehead, eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, lips, jaw and chin. Vertical creases (from the forehead) express concentration and interest or an effort of will; the horizontal wrinkles as a result of raising eyebrows and opening the eyes express surprise or the need for information.

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Head position is also important. It can express interest and equal treatment of the other. On the contrary, the bowed head suggests fear, insecurity, and self-orientation. Direct "eye-to-eye" contact expresses interest in deep communication, as it is more difficult to lie to someone while looking them in the eyes. A fixed look expresses withdrawal into oneself, detachment from the world. A mobile sweeping look reveals an active effort to search for information. Looking up and down shows superiority, disdain or distrust. Elevation of the head indicates safety, dignity or opening, if it's too rigid, it expresses pride. Hands are also carriers of information, either directly or by a combination of gestures and movements. A firm handshake expresses strength and desire to dominate, but also authenticity. A weak handshake shows either obedience or disinterest. Holding the hand longer than usual is a positive sign, expressing the need for direct contact, while the rapid release expresses the desire of detachment or impatience. Clasped hands close a circle and basically act as a barrier between oneself and the world. The hand touching the mouth expresses the need for self-control (as if taking care not to say what she/he should not). When directed to the forehead, it shows the desire to support head, which is interpreted either as fatigue or need to wipe away certain thoughts or memories. In general, movements directed towards oneself (opening and closing buttons, playing with the tie) express the need for making oneself seen and they could also betray a state of nervousness and agitation. Applicants should focus on themselves and on the messages they convey, but in a relaxed manner since the key to a successful interview, in terms of non-verbal communication, is authenticity and self-confidence.

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The purpose of lessons on financial management is to stress the financial aspects of sustainable living but and the importance of prudent fiscal management to a decent life.

TSL participants should be able to:

Identify priorities in their expenses. Distinguish between wishes and needs. Develop financial management skills. Identify strategic actions for needs identification. Analyze ways to increase personal incomes. Appreciate the employment opportunities in their country of origin and abroad.

The effect that the money has on you depends on your attitude towards it. If you feel you have too little money, it can become an obsession that dominates your thoughts, feelings and actions. Quarrels about money are a major cause of marriage breakups. Problems with money are the main reason for the collapse of some companies and friendships and psychosomatic illnesses. Suicide because of money problems is not all that rare, either. While we should live our life as it is, not as we would like it to be, most people live at least partially in an illusion or even fantasy. They wish, hope and pray to have a better financial future while deep in their hearts they know that their dreams will never materialize. Money can be good. It gives you opportunities and allows you to live your life as you want. Money opens doors, doors that would be closed without money. But obsession with money, like any other obsession, can be harmful. When people become so obsessed about money they forget that it is merely a tool to be used to attain happiness, money becomes harmful.

Exercise: THOUGHTS ON MONEY Imagine that each experience youve had with money was lesson designed especially for you, to help you to become financially independent. What are the most important lessons youve learned by now? Be honest with yourself before reflecting on the question: What is the biggest obstacle preventing my financial success? Resolve to act from now on as if that obstacle did not exist.

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Managing money
Understanding spending habits is the key to effective money management. By estimating their budget correctly, people spend more wisely and make the changes required to achieve their financial goals.

Exercise: WEEKLY EXPENSES Record all expenses incurred for one week, regardless of how little the item costs. At the end of the week, you should have a clear picture of the areas where you can reduce spending and save money for the future. A budget is a forecast of revenues and expenditures. From the outset the budget will help you to justify each activity planned for a specific period. If you know the cost of each activity, you are better able to solve financial challenges. At the end of an established budget period you should compare what you estimated with your actual revenues and expenditures.

The following test is designed to help raise awareness about the importance of creating a personal budget and prudent money management. The test also reveals attitudes towards money, personal expenses and the capacity to administer a budget.

QUIZ: ATTITUDES TOWARDS MONEY 1. When you have a lot of money, you dont give much thought to how you spend it: a) I never waste money on unnecessary things. b) Sometimes I shop on impulse. c) I always forget to record my spending. 2. Even if your income is sufficient, you manage to save: a) I dont take prices into account when I have enough money. b) I dont buy from the first store I see, I shop around for the best bargain. c) I dont always make an effort to buy where it's cheapest. 3. If you had to save to be able to live: a) I think it would be very difficult. b) But I always make savings. c) I wouldnt be able to because I am not in the habit of doing so. 4. Do you think its important to keep track of your income and expenses? a) Always. b) I do not see why. c) Its probably important. 5. Why buying things you look at the price first and then decide whether to purchase them: a) Not always, it depends on the thing. b) Price is my main criterion in buying thing.

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c) I never check the price. 6. You keep old things because you never know when you might need them: a) I sometimes do. b) Of course I do. c) I dont like to clutter my home with old things. 7. Your motto could be described as time means money: a) No. b) That expression sometimes suits me. c) Always. 8. What do you think about people who give a great deal of thought to every purchase? a) I think they are careful. b) I dont understand them. c) They might be right. 9. Even if you decided not to waste money, you just cant help yourself: a) Unfortunately its true. b) That never applies to me. c) That is sometimes true. 10. You think that a spender is a person who never thinks about the future: a) What is my present for in this case? b) I think thats true. c) The definition is accurate.
Scoring your answers: Mostly As: Usually you do not keep track of your spending. Sometimes you buy things on impulse. When you have money, you spend it, but when you have to, you can economize. Your attitude towards money is not consistent; rather, you act according to your circumstances. You likely would not be able to manage a financial crisis. Mostly Bs: You are very rigid about money. You are so accomplished at the art of saving, that you refuse the most innocent pleasures. Each leu is crucial for you and you are always on the look out for the best bargain. The running around you do to find the cheapest price probably causes you to spend more than you imagine. Try to relax about money. Mostly Cs: You are wasteful and you do not know what it means to save money. Others may take advantage of your generosity and it probably would to a good idea for you to exercise greater control over your spending. There is nothing wrong with keeping track of expenses and putting some money aside.

Preparing a savings plan

The easiest way to have more money is to manage it more efficiently. That is the purpose of a savings plan. Whether you make savings for higher education, a vacation or retirement you should think seriously about your future financial circumstances and how you

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plan to address them. Start by defining your financial objectives and how you might go about achieving them.

Note! If you dont keep your money in a savings account, you should track where
your money goes each month. Define long-term financial goals. Establish a target for the amount you want to have saved. Estimate how much money you will need to live a comfortable life after retirement, considering your current earnings and expenditures. You should also include salary increases and bonuses. If you can live comfortably on your salary, you should not take into account money from wage increases. The key is to make your money work for your financial security. Financial experts recommend that each family should strive to save 50% of the annual family income. To succeed, you must have skills. These savings can be used in the case of strict necessity or unforeseen expenses. Start saving. You will have to save enough money over 30 to 40 years of work to meet your needs during your 20 to 30 years of retirement. Try to overestimate your future needs. It is better to wake up knowing that you have more money to spend than less. Set up a savings plan. You should know that the amount of time you have left until retirement plays an important role in your style of your savings. Loans can be help, but at the same time a problem, depending on how they are used. The biggest problem is that usually families overestimate their financial potential while applying for loans, which makes it difficult to repay the loan. Repayment terms are also important. Choose a loan with the same thoroughness that you use when you buy goods or services. Make sure the repayment period is suitable for you. Do not overestimate your financial situation. You must know the real costs and terms of credit, including the credit rate, as it is a good barometer indicating what lenders think of your financial opportunities. Remember to take into account inflation. Put in place a reserve equivalent to six months of salary to help you weather tough economic times (such as illness or job loss). When you get paid, you should first pay yourself. Try to put away 10% of your salary into a savings account. Do not be discouraged if the amount you can save is very small. Remember: big events are done by small things. One hundred lei savings each week will be more than 10,000 lei in less than two years. Although it seems a long time now, the time passes quickly.

Exercise: PERSONAL BUDGET The exercise helps participants become more familiar with the notion of a personal budget and the importance of creating a personal budget and money management.

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1. Engage in a discussion about what is a personal budget? Write the ideas expressed by the group on a sheet of paper. 2. Explain the importance of preparing the personal budget and estimating earnings and expenses. A budget should be adapted to personal needs and requires that we have a good understanding of our daily needs and how much money we need to meet those needs. 3. Distribute Worksheet: Estimating daily needs to each participant and give them time to fill it out. Then discuss: Have you thought about your daily needs before or calculated your expenses? Was it difficult to list your daily needs? Why? Can the activities you did before help you in any way? How?

Worksheet: Estimating daily needs List of daily needs during the last week Monday Daily expenses (in lei)





. . . .


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. . . Sunday . . . .

Save while shopping

If you dont want to spend much money, but want good quality products, never shop without a shopping list. Write on a paper the name of the product and its estimated price and dont take more money with you than you need. Dont buy from the first seller you meet, check all the products first and choose the most suitable one. Dont go shopping in the morning since the prices are higher at this time of the day. Go during the afternoon or evening, when sellers are more prone to reduce their prices. Bargain with the seller, when possible (when you buy flowers, vegetables or fruit at the market). When you buy coffee, wine, cheese, biscuits, cream, remember that you can buy these products cheaper unpackaged by retail (but in a higher quantities). Buy certain imperishable products such as oil, sugar, cornmeal, nuts, potatoes, onions, etc. in advance of holiday seasons, when the price for these products jumps. Follow the promotions before holidays. Many stores offer discounts to attract clients. Thus, save now and buy later.

Exercise: FAMILY BUDGET Be prepared to discuss the difference between desires and needs; state spending and militarization; opportunities during peace time; social and economic rights; the right to health, food and education; the right to live in a clean and healthy environment; and, the right to security. 1. Explain to participants that they will be working in small groups. Each group will represent a distinct family. Each family will be responsible for developing a family budget for one month.

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2. Divide the participants into small groups of no more than five people consisting of a father, mother and children. Ask the participants to discuss with whom and what role they will play and to invent a name for their family. 3. Give each group the accompanying list of possible family expenses and costs. 4. Explain that only the things on the card can included in the familys budget. The price specified on the sheet cannot be changed. 5. Each family budget is not to exceed 10,000 (ten thousand) money units. Each family must choose as a unit what they will include in the budge. 6. Explain that the budget must be adopted democratically. 7. Allot 20 minutes to plan the family budgets. 8. Then allot 10 minutes for participants to review the budgets of the other groups and to consider the merits of the various budgets. 9. Ask each group to assess the activity. Use the following questions to spark discussion: How did the family develop the budget? Was it done democratically? What sort of criteria was used in making decisions? How did each group balance needs related to food, home, clothes and safety and leisure? How did participants feel when they thought a particular object was important, but other members disagreed and it was not included in the budget? Which budgets were developed well and which were not? Why? Do family and state budgets have anything in common? Can we compare them? Which lists reflect the state budget better? Which lists reflect an ideal state budget? What do the participants think about the current state budgets and about funds allocated for weapons and army? Why do so many nations in the world spend so much on their militaries? What are the consequences on economic and social rights and the rights to a healthy environment? How can we change the situation? Are any of the participants familiar with the disarmament and demilitarization fund? If not, what do you thing, why is there so little information about these processes in the media?

Suggestions for the facilitator: Family traditions vary depending on the country. Therefore, participants can include the grandfather, grandmother or other relatives in their families. Possible family budget expenses Food (200)

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Toys & Games (200) Paying the bill for water consumption (200) House alarm system (200) Monthly fee for sport activities (300) School fees (2000) Computer (800) Lottery (100) House repair and renovation (400) New car (4000) Clothing (400) Food for the animals (100) Vacation camp for children (200) Trained guard dog (400) Payment of electrical bill (200) Transportation (fuel, bus tickets, train) (400) Weekend vacation house at the beach (400) Mother's birthday gift (400) Washing machine repair (200) Rent (2500) Personal weapon (400) Fishing tools (200) Medicine (300) A new stall model (700) Defense lessons for mother and daughter/daughters (300) Leisure (cinema, theater, amusement park, etc.) (200) School supplies for a month (300) Material aid to grandfather and grandmother or other relatives (200) Dinner at a restaurant with the family (100) Phone bill payment (300) Car signaling system (300)

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Health insurance for the entire family (1000)

Tips for reducing household expenses Washing machines and refrigerators: Most laundry detergents work as well in cold
water as hot and washing clothes in cold watch will save energy and money. Make sure that the refrigerator consumes the energy it needs and not more. Check to make sure the seal on the door is intact and dont leave it open for long periods of time. Defrost it regularly and position it far from the heat sources.

Take short showers: Take short showers instead of having a bath! A five-minute shower uses 35 liters of water while a full bathtub requires 80 liters of water, which means that you can save 300 liters of water per week having short showers. Find the most convenient way to regulate the shower so that it consumes no more than six liters of water per minute. Insulate walls: Up to 33% of the heat produced in the house is lost through the
walls. Thus, it is worth insulating the walls you will have a warmer home and reduce your heating bill.

Shop for food like grandma did: Use your grandmothers model and plan a weekly
menu to guide you when you go shopping. Your grandmother was good at housekeeping and made sure that each leu was spent only on what was necessary. Try to imitate her and you will see how much money you will save!

Make yourself what you can make: If you have a house with a plot of land, you
can plant your own vegetables for a small amount of money. By splitting the work with family members you will be able to lower your food bill. Besides, your vegetables will be much better and fresher than those sold at the market. There is another advantage for this type of activity: gardening helps you get rid of stress! It can become a real passion. Exercise: WHY SHOULD WE KNOW HOW WE SPEND MONEY? Read the statements below carefully and mark the column that applies to you. Never I make a weekly budget and follow it strictly I try to be very careful about spending money, but still it still disappears I often have debt I spend my money and I have to deprive myself of certain things I know how to borrow money at a low interest rate I know how much I spend for my phone, electricity etc. each month Often

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I loaned money and it was not repaid I buy things without thinking, which I later regret I borrow money without thinking that I will have to repay it I sometimes do not repay my debts I have a very good idea about what I should spend my money on in a year.

Exercise: CALCULATING A PRESONAL BUDGET You earn 250 lei per month at a local enterprise. How do you spend it? Monthly income.............. Weekly income...............

What are my expenses? Transport Food Rent Maintenance, phone Laundry, ironing Medicines Savings Entertainment Others (list):




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Now compare the two lists. Have you been realistic? Such plans will help you achieve your goals and dreams.

Professional savings methods

You can open savings accounts for a term of one month to 24 months, so here are your options: 1. If you want to have extra income that you will be using monthly, choose an account with monthly deposit payment. You have the freedom to choose the period: you can open this type of deposit for terms of 1, 3, 6, 9 months, 1 year or 2 years. At the end of each calendar month the bank calculates the interest due and transfers it to your account. 2. You can choose collection of interest with a maturity rate (3, 6, 9, 12 months) you have chosen for your deposit. If at the maturation date you have not requested the liquidation of the deposit, it will be automatically renewed for the same term. 3. If you want to save money over the long-term and achieve maximum profit, a time deposit account, with interest capitalization upon maturity, is probably your best option. This means that the interest will be added automatically upon the maturity date. If you want to save money in a foreign currency, you can also choose deposits with interest paid upon maturity or with capitalization. The minimum amount of deposit required to open an account varies depending on the bank.

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TSL participants should be able to:
Assess where, how and why they waste their time. Establish goals and develop plans. Use various methods for time management. Develop organization skills. Plan and organize time effectively. Know their time management style. Identify their "time suckers. Be able to prioritize. Understand the reasons for postponing activities.

Efficiency at the individual level means especially being good at managing your most valuable asset your time. If you are wondering: "Why do I need to care about time management? The fact is even small systematic changes in how you manage your time will yield a big pay-off when it comes to achieving your objectives. Whats more, effective time management is a good predictor of career success. Many people believe that an overwhelming workload and high stress are simply a part of the job. It's easier to complain about not having enough time than doing something meaningful to manage time. The habits necessary for good time management are difficult to implement but well worth it in the time they save. After all, time is not merely something to be measured. Time is our very life our life is time, filled with thoughts, feelings and actions! Time management experts have reminded us for years that it is impossible to save time. We can only consume it. But how effective do we consume our time? Do you think of time as a very valuable resource and plan each minute carefully? Do you use your time striving to achieve your most important personal and professional goals? To answer these questions and to improve your understanding of the principles of time management take a pencil and complete the following short test, which refer to very basic principles of time management. If you follow these principles you will most certainly use your time more efficiently.

Quiz: Understanding the principles of time management 1. Do you revise your long-term personal and professional goals regularly? Score: ________ 2. Do you spend some time planning the day before it starts? Score: ________
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3. Do you list the tasks and meeting for the day in an agenda? Score: ________ 4. Do you prepare a list of priority tasks and focus on main priorities? Score: ________ 5. Do you have and maintain a list of things you need to do in the future? Score: ________ 6. Do you do the most important activities during your most productive period of the day? Score: ________ 7. Do you group similar tasks together and approach them respectively? Score: ________ 8. When you enter the office and read the correspondence do you immediately remove irrelevant items? Score: ________ 9. When working on a big project do you divide it into smaller tasks that you will tackle separately? Score: ________ 10. Do you close the door when you address important issues? Score: ________ 11. Do you keep important resources handy (phonebook, yellow pages, etc.)? Score: ________ 12. Do you organize your work tools (pens, phones, computers etc.) so that you can use them whenever you need them? Score: ________ 13. Do you have a simple, but well defined filing system, where you store all materials and sheets of paper? Score: ________ 14. When you have a task, do you try to finish in it all at once? Score: ________ 20. Do you use voice recorders for messages, correspondence, notes, etc. Score: ________ 16. Do you look through magazines, publications etc. to keep you informed about the news? Score: ________ 17. Do you use waiting time or travel times to fix minor problems or to read the materials? Score: ________ 18. Do you make decisions quickly and move immediately to the facts? Score: ________ 19. When you start a project or a task do you use contingency plans that can be easily implemented if the original plan does not work? Score: ________

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20. Do you keep your colleagues, friends and relatives aware of your work so that they can carry out minor tasks without interrupting you? Score: ________ 21. Instructions to colleagues and subordinates are clear so you do not need to have clarifying discussions later? Score: ________ 22. Do you set a clear agenda for meetings and follow it? Score: ________ 23. Do you stop working on a particular project when you feel stressed or lacking energy? Score: ________ 24. Do you track your time so that you know how and on what you consume it? Score: ________ 25. Do you set aside time each week to assess your work and productivity and determine if youre achieving the goals? Score: ________

Calculate your score as follows: Give yourself 1, 2, 3 points as follows: If the answer is always: 3 points; If the answer is usually: 2 points; If the answer is: sometimes or occasionally: 1 point; If the answer is never or seldom: 0 points. If the total is between 62-73 points, congratulations. You manage your time excellently, which likely is obvious in your professional and personal life. If the score is between 42-61 points, you have fairly good time management but a few small adjustments would make you even more productive. If your score is between 22-41 points you need to work on your time management. A score below 22 points means that you have a lot of work to do to improve your time management. Consider consulting a book about time management and start training. Remember! You cannot choose between saving and consuming time! Your only option is to consume it efficiently.

Each day has 24 hours, but for many people there are not enough hours in the day. Time is one of your most useful resources when used properly. So does time management actually imply?

Planning your time. Planning is the first step to good time management and allows you to establish an objective and complete it in a comprehensive and methodical way, eliminating the risk of forgetting or omitting a necessary task to fulfill an objective within a proposed deadline. Each workday is full of tasks that must be done. Time planning is the best way to eliminate distractions and get a job done. Prepare a list of daily tasks you hope to do and check them off once they have been completed. While completing each task, your progress will become more and more clear as you reduce the tasks that must be done.

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Setting targets and priorities: It's easy to make a habit of doing only the most
pleasant tasks first, but your day's activities should be set according to your needs, and the importance and urgency of each task, which will vary greatly. Be sure to incorporate a classification system into how you plan your time to encourage you to complete your most urgent tasks first and so that you are sure to allocate enough time for important tasks.

Measuring progress. It is very important to record your progress. You should feel encouraged as you see the number of tasks on your to do list decrease. Reward yourself when you finish your most unpleasant task of the day, take a break or make a call. Some tasks require more time and you should measure progress for these tasks too. Being prepared to say no. Every day we face unplanned tasks that steal our time. Even if a family member, friend, colleague asks you to do something, you should only do it after you have consulted your own list of tasks and you are certain that it will not interfere with your priorities. Many people agree to do things for others because they do not offend. But should make sure that we only accept requests that are compatible with our own goals. Learning to say no is one of the best things you can do to save time.
Exercise: POLITELY REFUSING Ask the participants to think of opportunities they have had to politely to refuse requests from colleagues, friends and family and make note of them on a flip chart. Ask them how they reject the requests and if they can refuse a request and say no without being bothered about it. Compare the circumstances when you feel fine saying no to those when you feel bothered about refusing a request. Encourage participants to explore how to say no politely. Write all ideas and suggestions on a flipchart. Upon finishing the exercise have a volunteer to transpose this information onto a work sheet that you will later distribute to participants.

Delegating means entrusting a task or responsibility to another person and it is one of the most effective ways to save time. Ask yourself if there are any tasks that you are currently doing that you could delegate to others. Consider external resources as well. For example, contracting an accounting service to handle record keeping or VAT repayment instead of you.

Exercise: DIFFICULTIES IN DELEGATING Start by asking participants to prepare a list of the all of the reasons they think it is difficult to delegate tasks to others. Note their answers on the flip chart. The answers might include the following:

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Losing control. Lack of trust in staff abilities. Not wanting to give up doing the activity. It is easier to solve the tasks on ones owns than explaining to someone how to do it.

Allot about 5 minutes for the answers below. Use the remaining time to stimulate a group debate about delegation and the ways in which participants have discovered that they can integrate delegation into their work routine.

Quiz: Assessing your delegation style Answer yes or No to the following questions: Do you usually take work home? Do you work overtime? Do you spend time solving the problems of people who you think should solve them on their own? When you return to the office after an absence, is your desk or In folder full? Are you often interrupted by questions or requests relating to current projects or tasks? Do you deal with activities and problems you dealt with before? Do you waste time on routine details that other people might be able to manage? Do you observe deadlines? Do you manage to maintain the highest priorities? Do you assign tasks to staff, requesting an action plan before implementing them?
To calculate the score: Count the positive answers: If you have between two and four positive answers, you should improve your delegation style. If you have five or more positive answers, delegating more might make you more efficient and you should consider the following suggestions.

Tips on delegating Emphasize results, not details: Inform staff that you are interested more in the
result or the outcome of the project they are doing than the daily details.

Be open to solutions: Notify your employees that they are welcome to share their problems and concerns but they must also provide solutions. Organize some training activities on managing issues more efficiently. In the long run, it will save time and money.

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Make sure that all general and specific objectives are measurable and concrete . When you explain a task before delegating it, provide concrete examples about how to the task correctly from the first time. Thus the staff will become more self-confident in performing the task.

Develop a reporting system: Establish a system that the employees can use to
report their progresses in implementing their assigned tasks. This system can include e-mail messages, summaries or weekly meetings to discuss progress or problems.

Establish realistic deadlines for tasks: You know how much time you need to perform a certain task, so you should be realistic about establishing deadlines for others. Always be sure to assign enough time to make revisions. Know your staff and delegate tasks according to their skills: If you know that a
particular person is good at figures, a task related to budget development would be suitable to delegate to him or her. Such a task cannot be delegated to someone who has difficulty calculating the hours on his or her timesheet.

Use technology to your benefit.

This can be done very easily, for example, by using the Internet, sending e-mail messages rather than writing letters. Technology can be used in a variety of ways. For instance, online banking is available in Moldova too. Avoid lengthy discussions on the phone. The phone is a tool that facilitates rapid communication, but it can also be a huge waste of time (and money). To keep phone calls as short as possible, lead the conversation being mindful of your objectives and keep the other person on topic. If you're the one who was called, you cannot always be available. Plan when it is most efficient to take calls.

Allocate personal time

It is impossible to remain focused all the time. Although it seems to you that you need to rush and work non-stop to finish everything you have to do, you'll find that if you take a few moments to relax during the day, the tasks will be carried out more efficiently. Do not rush, take your time to perform tasks correctly and you'll save time by not having to fix sloppy work and repeat tasks.

Organize the work place

Whether you work at a desk or in a car, the principle remains the same: organization saves time. The better organized your work place, the more efficient you are at doing your work. Arrange the things that you need regularly in a way that will allow you to know where a specific item is when you need it.

Golden rules for time management

1. Set up a daily routine. Plan a schedule for a daily routine such as meetings, mail, photocopying, fax, letters etc.

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2. Do the things that require full mental capacity when you're at top capacity. Plan minor meetings when your ability to focus is minimal. 3. Set deadlines for all activities and comply with them. Everything can be done on time. 4. Do not postpone important tasks just because you dont like them. They will block your head, reduce creativity and decrease your ability to work. No task becomes easier if you postpone it. 5. Postpone unimportant things. Many so-called problems resolve themselves on their own. 6. Analyze the causes of interruptions and try to eliminate as many as possible. 7. Establish specific times when you are not to be interrupted. Hold meetings with yourself. Hang a Do not disturb sign on your door, indicating when you are available, if needed. Put your answering machine on and answer all phone calls later. Tell your colleagues when you are not available. 8. Complete tasks one by one so that you can note your progress and keep track of future tasks. 9. Prepare for your phone calls in advance. Make note of what you want to say and what you want to find out. This will save you time and improve communication. 10. Gather your ideas in one place, preferably your personal agenda. Write down ideas as they come to you so that you dont forget them. From time to time, flip through your agenda and note the good ideas. 11. When you start a task, try to finish it rather than postponing it because you might not get the change to return to it. 12. Take a break when you know you cant work efficiently. 13. Use well-defined times/sessions to discuss routine details and avoid interrupting each other to save even more time. Avoid disruptions during meetings, when there are frequent interruptions and everyone is trying to participate simultaneously in the discussion, the meeting drags out and does not serve its purpose. 14. Be selective in assuming tasks. Learn to say no. Make a habit of asking, "Am I the most suitable person to do this?" 15. Make a habit of checking how you use your time once per week. Ask yourself if you might have used your time better. 16. Avoid taking work home if you think you wont be able to do it. It is better to stay at work until you finish what you have to do because that way you will enjoy your time off more. 17. Go to sleep one hour earlier and wake up in the morning one hour earlier so you have time to plan your agenda for that day. 18. Reward yourself when you achieve your goals.

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19 Group similar activities. 20. Rule 60-40: plan 60% of the available time and leave the rest for unexpected events. Time management matrix Urgent Important Crises Pressing issues Projects with deadlines Not very urgent Relationships Recognition of new opportunities Planning Leisure Unimportant Some phone calls and mails Some phone calls and mail Some meetings and activities Deadlines Pleasant activities

Here is how the matrix must be used: Unimportant Important DO NOW DELEGATE Urgent PLAN FORGET Not very urgent

Planning principle
Where are you? Where do you want to be? What has to be done to achieve your goal?

Planning goal
Keep the purpose in mind: Know what you need to do and why and relate all activities to the final goal; Reducing tasks: Divide big tasks into smaller activities (see the example below).

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Responsibilities: You know what you have to do and you feel responsible for doing it. Deadlines: Finish one task before starting something else respect your deadlines!

Characteristics of a good plan

Realistic and motivated at the same time Flexible, adjustable depending on external or internal changes Structured simply and comprehensible for everyone

Your goals must be:

Possible to reach Credible Clear Desired

Another way to set goals is the SMART principle:

Simple Measurable Achievable Realistic Time (can be established in time)

Planning techniques
Mind mapping Spreadsheet (columns for key areas/objectives/schedule/deadlines/other details) SWOT analyses for objectives assessment Sample spreadsheet: Objectives Deadline Measure Activities Planning

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The five-minute rule

Some employees cannot be brief. They can drag out even the smallest chat into a lengthy conversation. When you meet them, greet them amicably, but make it clear that you only have 5 minutes to talk. This way you will kill two birds with one stone: They will improve their skill of being brief. You will be able to say "good-bye" politely when those five minutes are up. If, after 5 minutes, they are not finished what they had to say suggest them that they should send a memo detailing what they didnt have a chance to discuss. The 5-minute rule isnt appropriate for everyone, but works well for those who need to learn how to get their ideas across more quickly.

"Silent hour" rule

Even managers with open door policies sometimes need to close their doors. Some managers set aside a period of time in which they are not to be disturbed so they can plan priorities for that day. Employees understand that managers are not available during this time except for urgent matters. They observe this rule because they can see that the manager is more relaxed, available and communicative after having had the opportunity to plan activities for the day.

Fix the appointments at the end of the day

This is a saving solution, especially in case of persistent employees, who interrupt at every opportunity. When you enter your office, explain that you are busy, but it would be your pleasure to meet them at 17.00 (assuming this is when the work day ends). If this time is not convenient for them, suggest meeting on the following day during the lunch break. This technique seems tough, but eventually, even the most insecure time "vampires" will begin to act independently, finding their own answers.

Fundamentals of a good time management: Parkinsons law: The activity dilates (like a gas) depending on the time you

Paretos law: 20% of our work produces 80% of our results. Carlsons law: Performing a task based on head-tail principle takes less
time than dividing it in several stages.

Illich law: Beyond a certain threshold of the workload, efficiency is reduced. 60/40 law: On During a workday, schedule 60% of the time and leave 40%
for unexpected tasks.

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Good time management principles:

Think before acting. Do not leave for later what you can do now. Establish priorities according to their importance and observe this order. Scheduled activities replace unscheduled ones.









TSL participants should be able to:

Assess both their own professional stress and the stress of their employees, acquiring at the same time skills to fight and manage stress. Be aware of the stress factors they have faced recently in their professional activity. Compare methods for managing stress.

Some professionals take good care professional life. They have learned useful themselves to become overwhelmed. Others time, still feel exhausted. A third category burned out, overwhelmed and helpless.

of themselves, both in their personal and stress management tools and do not allow can control stress quite well, but from time to of professionals feels perpetually stressed,

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According to a European agency for the study of safety and quality of working conditions, stress affects a third of economically active people regardless of their profession, the nature of their work or their place in the workplace hierarchy. Stress from work is the second leading cause of illness in Europe and an estimated 50 per cent of absences from work are related to stress. According research in the United States, 40% of working Americans consider their work to be "very or extremely stressful" while 25% say their job is their most stressful life factor. The most common reasons cited for workplace stress are heavy workload, lack of control and insecurity. Stress from work can result in depression, anxiety, nervousness, fatigue, and heart disease an ultimately deteriorating professional and personal life. Psychological conditions, such as apathy, negativity, embarrassment, boredom, dissatisfaction, fatigue, alienation, anger or irritability as well as physiological problems such as headaches and stomachaches are the most common symptoms of stress. Successfully managing stress is key not only to long-term professional success but also maintaining physical and mental health.

Exercise: TAKING ASSERTIVE ACTION 1. Divide the participants into four groups. Distribute the accompanying work sheet. 2. Tell each group to read the sentence and identify the following issues: how does a person feel when he or she is disturbed by a certain behavior, what is the impact of the behavior on the person and the suggested solution. 3. Allocate enough time to define as a group the structure of assertive messages and their importance in communication. Suggestions to the facilitator: Explain to participants that they would rather talk about their own concerns, needs and feelings than be aggressive, violent or careless in resolving conflicts.

Assertive messages are welcome

At the beginning of a delicate discussion during which you are trying to solve a problem or conflict. Upon final solution of conflict. During a heated discussion, when you are being blamed about something.

The structure of assertive messages

Tell the interlocutor what you feel (feeling, emotion). Tell the interlocutor about the behavior that bothers you. Explain the effect of disturbing behavior on you. Suggest solutions that would be acceptable to both parties.

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I feel (feeling, emotion), WHEN (behavior that bother you), BECAUSE (the effect that the disturbing behavior has on you), IT WOULD BE BETTER IF (suggest solutions acceptable to both parties). ASSERTIVE ACTION WORK SHEET (to be distributed during exercise) Stage 1: When someone makes comments concerning me I feel humiliated, as if I am a child who misbehaves. I dont like to be talked about. Stage 2: When I am interrupted, I feel confused and I have to make an effort not to forget what I was talking about. I would like to have the opportunity to finish what I have to say. Stage 3: Instructor to idle class: When I try to explain something and I see that you are not listening to me, I feel that we waste time and that I will have to start all over. I would like to know if you are interested in what I say and if I made myself understood. Stage 4: When you dont answer me, I think that nothing I say is of interest to you. I would like to believe that I am not intimidating or boring you.

Stress factors
People react gradually to stress and prolonged tension and most people recover once the stressful situation is removed, although it may cause them to become more susceptible to stress. Environmental factors are stressors for humans and animals, causing disturbances in physiological systems, including body temperature (too high or too low), humidity, noise, and pollutants. Psychosocial stressors are conflicts, social pressure, factors that threaten the financial situation or social status of individuals, which are perceived by the individual as a threat. Stress is not only influenced by external factors, but also by the vulnerability and stress tolerance of the individual and his or her personality traits. Universal stressors include war, detention, natural disasters, accidents leading to disability or incurable diseases and loss of loved ones. Some situations can be more

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stressful to some than others. For example, failing an exam and the disapproval or criticism from a supervisor prompt different reactions depending on the person. Even in the case of natural disaster, there are people who can maintain their composure and act quickly and effectively, while others panic or behave strangely. Stress factors in a persons family or personal life may affect their behavior at work or combine with stress at work, resulting in health problems.

Stress factors at work:

Lack of clear objectives: Insufficient communication within the organization; failure to provide employees with input in changes occurring at the work place; and, lack of support from the management. Responsibility and role within the organization: Unclear responsibilities within the organization; contradictory objectives and priorities; and, high level of responsibility at the work place. Career: Uncertainty in career development; career frustrations; uncertain responsibility and lack of recognition; uncertainty in the work place; and, insufficient training. Decision and control: Weak participation in decision-making process; and, lack of control over ones work. Relationships at the workplace: Physical or social isolation; weak links with supervisors; poor communication; and, interpersonal conflicts; Work place design: Repetitious and monotonous tasks; significant risk of accident or disease; fear of technology; and, lack of competence. Workload and work tempo: Lack of control over the work tempo; and, too many or too few tasks. Working program: Inflexible working program; unpredictable or erratic workload; unplanned overtime; shift work; and, excessive additional tasks.

We are all affected by stress at one time, particularly in times of transition. Although stress is not a new phenomenon, its nature has become increasingly globalized and affects all countries and socio-professional categories, as well as family and society in general. Factors that affect ones vulnerability to stress include personality, age, sex, and level of economic development, among others.

Risk prevention strategies

1. Change your perspective. If an employer is asking too much from you, try to understand the source of the problem. For instance, is it how you organize yourself or in the way the department operates? A career counselor may be able to help you explore the issue from another perspective and make a plan of action.

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2. Learn to end a situation. Take a break when you feel your stress level increasing. Five minutes outside the space where you are working and the routine of work may decrease your stress significantly. 3. Appreciate your personal life. Mobile phones and the internet make us available to work practically all of the time. Do not allow the boundaries between work time and personal time to disappear. Respect the time you dedicate to family and to yourself. It is important to leave work at the office, even when your office is a room in your own house. 4. Fight the chaos. Find time to organize your work place, create some order in your tasks, make a list and check the tasks you have performed. Feeling like you have lost control causes stress. 5. Share your feelings. The handiest tool for reducing stress is to share your feelings with someone close to you. Having a supportive person listen to you will help you to relax and reduce stress. 6. Make sure you have someone to help you. Even the mere thought that you have someone to call on to help when you feel overwhelmed will reduce tension. Remember to reciprocate as well. 7. Keep a sense of humor. When you or people around you begin to take things too seriously, find a way to reduce tension through laughter. Make a joke. Laughter is excellent therapy for occupational stress. 8. Set realistic expectations. Too high and unrealistic expectations about what you can accomplish in a day, week or month will cause negative feelings. High levels of stress affect work motivation and can have a negative influence on professional succession. 9. Nobody is perfect. Give up the need to always be in control of every detail. Try to do your work well as you can, but give up the unrealistic ideal of perfection. No one is omnipotent. Do not take your failures too hard, be positive and learn from mistakes. 10. Maintain a positive spirit. Avoid people with a negative spirit as they can "contaminate" you. Negativism destroys energy and motivation, so avoid it. Create a positive atmosphere in your interactions with others. Learn to enjoy your achievements even if nobody else does. Exercise: SYMPTOMS OF WORKPLACE STRESS Tell participants that the group will study a case to help understand the stress better. Invite participants to review the Martin, case study and then answer the questions. They will have 10 minutes to complete the activity. Martin, case study Martin is a supervisor at a local NGO. He is almost always busy and under stress due to very frequent crises at work and because of the obligations imposed by budget deadlines.

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Martin has five subordinates whose activity he must closely monitored because they make so many costly mistakes and because do not always complete their tasks. However, Martin doesnt realize that his five subordinates think that he is too strict with them and that he doesnt trust them enough to carry out their tasks. Martin is working very hard to meet the deadline to submit final budget to his superiors. For several nights he has been reviewing figures and program details provided by his subordinates. He drinks coffee all day long and rarely eats lunch, nibbling on whatever he can find during the afternoon. Because he's forced to work overtime, he has dinner at a snack bar on the way home, including a few bottles of beer. Martin has gained quite a bit of weight recently and he does not like the way he looks. He knows that the staff has noticed and wonders why he doesnt take better care of himself. He thinks that perhaps the beer is to blame, but it calms him and helps him sleep so he doesnt want to stop drinking it. Martin's department is obviously overworked, but he doesnt want to ask for help because he fears his superiors either will refuse or will lose confidence in his ability to lead his team. Today, Martin realized right before handing in the final budget that one of his subordinates failed to notice a fundamental mistake that could cost the organization a significant amount of money. Martin is furious that he will be blamed for the mistake and he threatens to fire the employee for the error. The entire staff feels stressed. Questions about the case study What do you think is causing Martins stress? How is he controlling the stress? What should he change? Engage in a discussion about Martin. Possible responses to the above questions include the following: He works too much. He has bad food habits and drinks too much. Hes not able to master his work. He doesnt trust his supervision skills or his ability to express his needs and the needs of his staff to his supervisors. He cannot control his stress because he eats too much unhealthy food, he doesnt sleep well and he drinks in order to be able to fall asleep. He doesnt do any physical exercise.

Defining stress
The American Heritage College Dictionary defines stress as "a state of mental or emotional disturbance or discomfort that occurs in response to adverse external influences and is usually characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure and muscle pain, irritability and depression, this condition being caused by a stimulus or circumstance. The Explanatory Dictionary of Romanian language describes stress as "the name given to any factor (or combination of factors) causing abnormal reaction to the average human body."

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Review the following list of symptoms that signal the emergence of stress. Physical, affective, cognitive and behavioral effects of stress Physical: Persistent fatigue Nausea Muscle tremor Involuntary movements Headaches Vision problems Weakness Frequent urination Nonspecific physical disorders Constipation, diarrhea Cold or wet extremities Cognitive: Blaming others Confusion Increased or decreased vigilance Lack of concentration Memory problems Low problem solution capacity Low abstract thinking skill Difficulties in making decisions Obsessive thinking Low sexual appetite Affective: Anxiety Feeling of guilt Rejection Fear Uncertainty Agitation Loss of control Depression Fear Feeling overwhelmed Intense anger, irritation Behavioral: Instability in activities Withdrawal/lack of participation Emotional/physical outbursts Suspicion Lost or increased appetite Increased alcohol/drug consumption Incapacity to rest Excessive sensitivity to environment Insomnia, nightmares Excessive impulse buying

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Stressed and nervous people tend to breathe shortly and shallowly (35 40 breaths per minute in case of maximal stress). The effects of such breathing include: Need to breathe more often per minute. The lungs never release the full quantity of vitiated air. Limited amount of oxygen in blood flow, which reduces the oxygenation of brain and increases tension and nervousness.

Those who are calm and relaxed breathe slowly and deeply (about 6 to 8 breaths per minute).

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The activities detailed in this section emphasize: Problem-based training. Learning through discovery. Group participation activities. The following methods and techniques may be used in training-based learning: Minilesson; Individual work; Small group activities; Think-pairs-present; Brainstorming; Discussion; Energizing exercises; Case study; Role-play; Learning though discovery; Debates: Wisdom box; Watching films about the subject followed by group discussion; Other critical thinking methods.

Individual work helps participants understand their opinions and attitudes towards
an issue and imply: Increasing the involvement of each participant. Encouraging participants to exchange ideas. Listening to different opinions respectfully. Increasing participants trust in their own abilities and understanding their ideas and opinions. Note! It is not recommended that individual work activities be done too often since participants may quickly get bored. Be sure to do some sort of interactive work after the individual work.

Working in small groups ( teams) allows participants to exchange ideas and collective brainstorm solutions to problems. Participants are divided into small groups, using different breakdown criteria (e.g.: by numbering, by natural phenomena, colors etc.). The teams should include no more than seven people. The lecturer presents the subject to be analyzed by each group and the questions that must be answered, checking to ensure that each group understands their assigned tasks. Time is allocated for discussion and the facilitator intervenes only to provide clarifications. When the time has expired, one volunteer from each group is asked to present the conclusions of his or her group. The lecturer identifies all of the shared conclusions and presents general conclusions.
Along with performing a task, work group implies the following benefits: Exercising team cooperation skills. Exercising active listening skills.

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Exercising group negotiation. Expressing personal ideas. Exercising creativity. Exercising group responsibilities (to write, to present). Using as resources people who share their experiences. Increasing self-confidence.

If the topic is human trafficking, this method can be applied in establishing the reasons for illegally working abroad, creating a portrait of potential victims and recruiter/trafficker and highlighting recruitment methods.

Think - pair - present (TPP) is a technique that encourages participation in discussion and formulation of attitudes in pairs. It is combined with other learning techniques. The pair discusses their views/experiences and reaches a consensus about ideas that are presented to the group. The lecturer creates pairs based on a previously established criterion. Note! If the lecturer notices that a pair cannot reach a consensus, he or she allows each person to present their views separately to avoid increasing conflict between them, mentioning that it is perfectly acceptable to have different ideas and that it is important for all views to be expressed. Brainstorming is a method of generating ideas in a short period of time. It is used to
find solutions for a problem or to define a term. This process facilitates the emergence of an unlimited number of ideas and concepts. There are several rules for brainstorming, namely: The lecturer defines clearly and simply the subject or problem. All ideas are recorded even if they seem unnecessary and pointless. The lecturer encourages participants to present as many ideas as possible. No one is to judge the ideas. There are no good or bad ideas. No comments are permitted on the ideas being suggested.

Identifying solutions follows the generating of ideas. If at some point the group runs out of ideas, the lecturer will stimulate the group with questions or recommendations that should prompt more ideas. The next stage is the evaluation of ideas. If necessary, the ideas of group members are articulated as concrete statements. If the topic is human trafficking, this method can be used to facilitate a definition of human trafficking and its causes in highlighting the profile of the potential victim, traffickers portrait etc. Note! The lecturer must be careful when noting participants ideas not to omit any of them. Sometimes a person overcomes his or her shyness, expresses his or her opinion in the hope it will be taken into account. If the idea is not heard, it may discourage the person participating any further.

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Discussion is an exchange of opinions and takes place when each participant

expresses his or her opinion on an issue based on his or her own knowledge and experience. The discussion topic is well defined and can be posed by the facilitator or a participant. It is an effective means by which participants can inform each other, learn to listen and express their opinions. During discussions, participants are able to think more deeply about the subject and understand their own feelings, attitudes, values and behavior as well as those of others. Note! Discussion is almost always used together with other methods and is welcome at any stage of a seminar.

Warm-up exercises are used by the lecturer to help participants engage in

activities, recover following difficult activities and to stimulate interest. These exercises are often referred to as ice-breaking exercises that also aim at increasing self-confidence, the positive psychological environment and feelings of mutual support. Note! It is not recommended to use this type of exercise too often and activities must be adapted for the age of participants.

Role-play involves interpreting a short, spontaneous story and describing a real life
situation. This technique allows participants to take on roles of other people, to feel, behave and talk like someone else. Within this role participants can: Test a behavior Understand how someone feels in a situation. Express a feeling. Experience a different opinion. Learn from the successes and failures of other people.

When a concrete situation is interpreted, the "actors," as well as the "spectators" can see the hidden aspects of a problem and how to solve them. This is because of the sense of empathy that develops during the game. Body language sometimes matters more than words in role-playing When the role-play has ended, the following aspects are discussed: How they felt in these roles; Why they treated the situation or character they way they did; Whether the task was achieved; What other solutions to this problem might exist; What have they learned from the role-play?

A role-play usually takes about 5-10 minutes and can be developed in small groups, in pairs or with all participants. Note! The role-play can imply deep emotional involvement. If the subject is human trafficking, this method can be applied to recruitment methods and for developing a strategy for escape.

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discovery/problem is another technique to consider.

Participants learn best by doing as opposed to reading, listening or watching. In problembased learning, participants discover, imagine, build and redefine, filtering ideas through the prism of their personality and apply higher mental processes of thinking and creating. Learning through discovery occurs as a result of individual and collective efforts based on social exchanges. The facilitator stimulates the development of customized learning projects that allows each participant to assume responsibility for learning, acknowledging, applying (self-) assessing, managing so they gradually gain autonomy over their own development.

Learning by discovery encourages the active and enduring acquisition of

knowledge because assimilation and understanding processes are more attractive. The technique favors the development of attitudes, an investigative and inventive spirit, flexibility and productivity of thinking, organized curiosity, complex motivation and creativity. The goal is not necessarily to engage participants in formulating answers to questions and problems, but to help them discover ways to ask questions and to apply critical thinking.

The case study presents a real or imaginary story to participants, containing a

problem and challenging them to find a solution, to analyze facts, to make decisions, to discover their own values and attitudes etc. The case study should not be complicated or lengthy or participants may forget details. The lecturer should ask participants if they understand it before launching into a discussion. When using the case study the lecturer should divide the group into smaller teams and provide them with enough time to become familiar it. Each team must complete the task indicated in the activity and delegate one person to present their conclusions to the large group. This formula can be used to explain the recruitment methods, as well as to complete a comprehensive analysis of all stages of human trafficking (from recruitment to the recovery of victims).

Mini-lessons are used present concepts that participants do not know, but which are
necessary to understand the topics to be discussed. The lecturer, in this case, will present information in an accessible form to listeners and will make them understand that these concepts are necessary for completing assigned exercises and drawing conclusions. During mini-lessons (which take 10-15 minutes) additional questions may be asked followed by a short exchange of views. Mini-lessons end with a group discussion or exercise within which the provided information is applied in practice. In the end, participants receive written material to reinforce learning. This method can used to define human trafficking, explain legal procedures for going abroad compared to illegal practices, why is it important to follow legal procedure and specific cases of women trafficking. The Wisdom box is a very good technique for exploring human trafficking. The facilitator puts in a box pieces of paper that contain written advice related to going abroad. Each participant will draw 1 piece and read the advice to the other participants. After each participant has read his or her piece of advice, the pupils make a circle and each piece of

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advice is read aloud by the group. This technique encourages participants to remember the advice.

All of the exercises explained below may be used to begin or concludes any of the topics covered in this manual. Exercise: THE TRAFFIC LIGHTS Materials: one set of colored cards (red, amber and green representing the three colors on traffic lights) for each participant. Distribute one set of colored cards to every participant. Ask a volunteer to reveal what he she learnt during this activity. Whoever agrees with this statement raises a green card, whoever does not have an opinion and neither agrees nor disagrees raises a yellow card and whoever disagrees raises a red card and explains why. Other participants share their thoughts. Exercise: EXPECTATION TREE The goal of the evaluation exercise is to help participants become accustomed to planning their work, identifying goals, setting objectives and assessing both the efficacy of plans and achievement of objectives. Materials: flipchart, small paper cards, markers, pens for each participant, glue. Draw a tree on a flipchart or on the blackboard. The roots represent expectations, the stem everyones contribution for the achievement of expectations, and the branches peoples fears. Ask participants to jot down their expectations, contributions and fears on the cards separately and place them on the corresponding part of the tree. Those who want to may read them aloud. Exercise: CIRCLES The purpose of the assessment exercise is to help participants absorb the information they have learned, retain the most essential details and to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of activities. Materials: sheets of papers and pens for each participant, glue stick. Distribute clean sheets of paper to each participant and ask them to use it to draw several concentric circles. Instruct participants to consider the following statements and jot down a response in each of the circles. I remember very well I didnt understand so well

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It would be useful to work more on Each participant will share the statements written on their paper to the group. Exercise: THE FRUIT BASKET The goal of the evaluation exercise is to make the participants familiar with planning their work, identifying their goals and setting objectives. At the same time, the activity aims at assessing the efficiency of the planned activities and the level of achievement of the objectives. Materials: flipchart paper, markers, pens for every participant, glue, colored cards. Draw a basket on a flipchart. Stick the cards on which the participants wrote their expectations concerning the activities on the outline of this basket. At the end of the activity draw a fruit basket on which you place cards with the achievements and successes listed by the participants. Exercise: BOARD OF EXPECTATIONS The goal of the exercise is to teach participants to establish their objectives clearly and to identify the goal they have for an activity. Another goal is to establish contact among participants and inform the group about what to expect. Materials: flipchart paper, markers, glue. Prepare two flipchart sheets with the following questions: What do I want to happen during this activity? What dont I want to happen? Place the sheets on the wall and ask each participant to write down their response to each question. When everyone has shared his or ideas, a volunteer reads all of the responses. The ideas will help you develop, with the participants, rules for the group to follow. Exercise: DRAWING THE IMPACT Materials: sheet of paper for each participant, marker, colored pencils, glue. Distribute a sheet of paper and several color pencils or markers to each participant. Ask the participants to divide the sheet into two parts. On one part they should draw how they were before participating in activities and on the other part how they are at this moment or in other words how participating in TSL has changed them. Ask the participants to draw how they have changed and to sign the drawing. Encourage creativity and curiosity. Then ask each participant to, one by one, present his or her drawing and comment on it, answering the question how their participation in TSL activities changed their life. Have participants display their drawings in a prominent place.

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Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova //Official Journal 159-162/648, 29.07.2003. International Center for the Protection and Promotion of Womens Rights La Strada, course support. "Civil Education," Independent Education and Human Rights Society, Chisinau 2002 Youth Guide: Training youth for the development of livelihood establishment skills, Publication EQUIP3 / Youth Trust, November 2005. Young Entrepreneurs Guide in Moldova, CTAM STEAUA Chisinau 2005 "Young Leaders Guide," National Youth Council of Moldova, Chisinau 2003 "Life skills education for human trafficking prevention," Ministry of Education of the RM, Chisinau 2004 "Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking," CPTF, Chisinau 2006 Youth in Action or How to Involve Young People in Voluntary Activities for Community Benefit," Independent Education and Human Rights Society, Chisinau 2003

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