Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind | Summary and Analysis by Summary Station by Summary Station - Read Online

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Chapter 1

200,000 years ago Homo sapiens first came into existence. They proceeded many other types of Homo species, such as Neanderthals and Homo Erectus. These different species of Homo lived in various parts throughout the planet, from Africa to North America. These different species have different qualities that they each need for the area that they live in. Those that live in hotter climates near the equator have darker skin and those that live in colder areas have thicker hair and less of a susceptibility to cold weather.

Chapter 2

Monkeys have been around for millions of years, and some of these evolved to walk upright. They did so over thousands of years due to the advantage doing so gave. It allowed primitive man to run faster and use its hands much more effectively so it could carry weapons, just sticks and stones at the time, and so that they can start to use their fingers for more intricate tasks such as shaping tools. The fact that these early men learnt to use their fingers in articulate ways it meant they couldn't use brute force like most other animals that were competing for food. Instead they had to use intelligence to get food and survive. This lead to development of the brain.

Chapter 3

Neanderthals had a much larger skull and forehead than Homo sapiens of the modern day as they had a larger brain. This larger brain allowed them to gain intelligence and learn from their surrounding very quickly, working out where the best berries grew and during what times of the year hunting each type of animal was best. They survived by all having extensive knowledge of the local area,