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DNA and Biotechnology

DNA and Biotechnology

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DNA and Biotechnology

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Appropriate for a wide range of disciplines, from biology to non-biology, law and nursing majors, DNA and Biotechnology uses a straightforward and comprehensive writing style that gives the educated layperson a survey of DNA by presenting a brief history of genetics, a clear outline of techniques that are in use, and highlights of breakthroughs in hot topic scientific discoveries.

  • Engaging and straightforward scientific writing style
  • Comprehensive forensics chapter
  • Parallel Pedagogic material designed to help both readers and teachers
  • Highlights in the latest scientific discoveries
  • Outstanding full-color illustration that walk reader through complex concepts
Editorial:
Publicado:
Sep 8, 2009
ISBN:
9780080916354
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Libro

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DNA and Biotechnology - Molly Fitzgerald-Hayes

Table of Contents

Cover Image

Copyright

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Chapter 1. The Roots of DNA Research

Chapter 2. The DNA Double Helix

Chapter 3. DNA in Action

Chapter 4. Tools of the DNA Trade

Chapter 5. Working with DNA

Chapter 6. Human Genomics

Chapter 7. Bioinformatics

Chapter 8. DNA Forensics

Chapter 9. Exploring Cell Fate

Chapter 10. Human Genetic Diseases

Chapter 11. Gene Therapy

Chapter 12. Stem Cell Research

Chapter 13. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Chapter 14. Animal Biotechnology

Chapter 15. Agricultural Biotechnology

Chapter 16. Genes and Race

Glossary

Index

Copyright

30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA

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84 Theobald’s Road, London WC1X 8RR, UK

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, E-mail: permissions@elsevier.com. You may also complete your request online via the Elsevier homepage (http://elsevier.com), by selecting Support & Contact then Copyright and Permission and then Obtaining Permissions.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Fitzgerald-Hayes, Molly.

DNA and biotechnology : the awesome skill / Molly Fitzgerald-Hayes, Frieda Reichsman.

p. cm.

ISBN 978-0-12-048930-5 (hard cover : alk. paper)

1. DNA. 2. Biotechnology—Research. I. Reichsman, Frieda. II. Title.

QP624.F58 2010

660.6′5–dc22

2009021293

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 978-0-12-048930-5

For information on all Academic Press publications visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.com

Printed in the United States of America

09 10 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Acknowledgments

Molly Fitzgerald-Hayes and Frieda Reichsman

Very Special Thank You to Our Families

The authors extend their deepest appreciation to their families for their love, patience, and constant support during the years we worked on this book. We could not have done it without you.

Thank you to UMass Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) Students

The authors thank the BMB undergraduate majors at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst who made special contributions to the book: Stephanie Murphy, who wrote about RNA interference (RNAi); Ervin Pejos, who wrote about carbon-based nanotechnology in medicine; Anne Osborn, who conducted updated information about human genetic diseases in the post-human genome era. Thank you also to Katerina Papa, Nana Biney, and Chris Broderick.

Thank You to the Professionals

The authors wish to express their deep appreciation to the scholars who made significant contributions to the book in their areas of scientific expertise: Sharon Thoma, Robin Wesselschmidt, Bernice Schachter, Ron Michaelis, and Alan H. McGowan.

Thank You to Anonymous Chapter Reviewers

The authors also wish to thank the anonymous reviewers who took the time and had the patience to provide the helpful comments that we used to improve the book.

The Buck Stops Here

The authors are responsible for the contents of this book, including any mistakes. Others who contributed to drafts of the book are not responsible for the final product after the text was revised—this was our task. In the end, the authors take full responsibility for getting it right, and if not, our most sincere apologies are extended—as well as the hope that you will contact us with corrections at dnabiotechnology3@gmail.com

We hope you enjoy reading DNA and Bio-technology!

Introduction

About the Authors

As friends and colleagues for many years, we’ve taught university non-science majors, retirees, clubs, Elderhostel classes, and various community groups about DNA, genes, and the human genome. We’ve enjoyed giving hands-on DNA workshops for K-12 teachers and middle and high school students, and we have even taught people how to isolate their own DNA from the cheek cells inside their mouths (safe, painless, cheap, and easy!).

The invitation to write the new edition of Alcamo’s book brought a surge of anticipation and excitement, and years of work! We hope that the book reflects Ed Alcamo’s clear and fluent writing style about science. To bring the 3rd edition as up to date as is possible (for a printed book), we added several new chapters covering advances in gene therapy, stem cells, drug design and development, bioinformatics, and animal and plant biotechnology.

About our Target Audience

We wrote DNA and Biotechnology for a wide audience that includes college and high school students as well as laypeople with varying backgrounds in science. Our goal for the book is to help people to better understand how genes control cell function, how persistent and ingenious scientists tracked down the means of control, and how we as a society now use this knowledge to explore further, to heal, and to attempt to improve life. We tried to make this book very readable without oversimplifying the picture of a living cell, full of the thousands of molecular machines made from protein and RNA parts, reading the DNA genome, and performing the functions that make life possible.

About Learning Features in the Book

The 3rd edition includes features designed to make learning about DNA much easier:

Chapter Outline: Each chapter starts with a convenient outline that gives you a succinct overview of how the topics and subtopics interrelate.

Hot Topic Box: Every chapter draws in readers with a recent, attention-grabbing news headline, brief story, and explanation of its relevance to the scientific information in the chapter.

Looking Ahead: This section presents broad learning objectives that orient readers to fundamental goals for understanding and communicating about the chapter topics.

Special Topic Boxes: These sections emphasize people and scientific discoveries that have a special connection or relevance to chapter topics.

Boldface Terms: New terms are introduced using boldface type. All boldface terms are defined in the Glossary at the end of the book.

Summary Statements: Short summary statements punctuate each chapter, helping readers to identify important points and orient themselves when reviewing the information.

Summary: The summary at the end of each chapter brings together the key points and relates them to each other more immediately than the full chapter treatment allows.

Review Questions: Ten broad-based review questions provide an opportunity for readers to test their recall and comprehension of the information in the chapter.

Additional Reading: Recommendations include both current and historically relevant sources (books, newspapers, magazine and research articles, and web sites) that help readers delve further into topics of particular interest.

Glossary: A glossary at the end of the book defines the boldface terms introduced in each chapter.

About Using the Book

Organization of Chapters (3rd edition)

Chapter 1: The Roots of DNA Research

Chapter 2: The DNA Double Helix

Chapter 3: DNA in Action

Chapter 4: Tools of the DNA Trade

Chapter 5: Working with DNA

Chapter 6: Human Genomics

Chapter 7: Bioinformatics

Chapter 8: DNA Forensics

Chapter 9: Exploring Cell Fate

Chapter 10: Human Genetic Diseases

Chapter 11: Gene Therapy

Chapter 12: Stem Cell Research

Chapter 13: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Chapter 14: Animal Biotechnology

Chapter 15: Agricultural Biotechnology

Chapter 16: Genes and Race

The 16 chapters in DNA and Biotechnology are arranged in three groups that give teachers the flexibility to select chapters based on the scientific background of the students in the class. The first five chapters (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5), form a core of content that is essential for understanding the rest of the book. This core includes the basic structure and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in cells (Chapter 1 and Chapter 2), explains how gene expression controls cell function (Chapter 3), and describes the recombinant DNA cloning technologies that fundamentally changed DNA research (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5).

Building on the foundation of the first five chapters, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9 and Chapter 10 provide an opportunity for readers who are curious about the role of DNA and genes in modern research. Automated DNA sequence analysis has become routine, and hundreds of genome sequences have been analyzed, in addition to the entire human genome (Chapter 6). The deluge of primary sequences has fed the emerging bioinformatics field, which uses information technology to store, explore, and annotate DNA, RNA, and protein sequences (Chapter 7). DNA technology has enabled us to seek out and identify specific DNA sequences in many contexts, with applications in fields such as criminal forensics (fingerprinting) and medical diagnostics (Chapter 8). Molecular genetics research explains how multiple genome mutations can cause a cell to lose growth control and turn into a cancer cell (Chapter 9). The chromosome locations of genes and mutations that cause many genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, muscular dystrophy, Huntington’s disease, and many more, have been identified (Chapter 10). These chapters tie together the basic functions of genes and proteins in cells (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5) with the advances in DNA based technologies in the research lab, many of which harness the same molecules. The biological mechanisms employed by the cell to replicate DNA and make RNA have led to the development of the most important techniques used in molecular biology and genetics.

Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 13, Chapter 14, Chapter 15 and Chapter 16 focus on several specialized applications of DNA biotechnology. For example, finding a mutant gene that causes a genetic disease opens the door to the possibility of a gene therapy treatment (Chapter 11). The science of human embryonic stem cells is described, as are the very exciting iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, which are derived from adult human skin cells but look and act like embryonic stem cells (Chapter 12). New genetic strategies for designing drugs and the development of nanocarriers that deliver drugs directly into cells are just two examples of new areas of pharmaceutical research (Chapter 13). Advances include transgenic animals and plants genetically engineered to produce antibiotics, drugs, and hormones (Chapter 14 and Chapters 15). DNA research shows that individual human genomes are almost identical in DNA sequence and that all people have exactly the same genes. What does this mean about our understanding of race? (Chapter 16).

Chapter 1. The Roots of DNA Research

My Genome, Myself: Seeking Clues in DNA

The New York Times, November 17, 2007

By Amy Harmon

The exploration of the human genome has long been relegated to elite scientists in research laboratories. But that is about to change. An infant industry is capitalizing on the plunging cost of genetic testing technology to offer any individual unprecedented—and unmediated—entree to their own DNA.

For as little as $1,000 and a saliva sample, customers will be able to learn what is known so far about how the billions of bits in their biological code shape who they are. Three companies have already announced plans to market such services, one yesterday.

Offered the chance to be among the early testers, I agreed, but not without reservations. What if I learned I was likely to die young? Or that I might have passed on a rogue gene to my daughter? And more pragmatically, what if an insurance company or an employer used such information against me in the future?

But three weeks later, I was already somewhat addicted to the daily communion with my genes. (Recurring note to self: was this addiction genetic?)

[To read on, go to http://tinyurl.com/2zuqsh.]

From the preceding article, we can see that we are at the start of an era of personalized genomes. How long will it be before, alongside tongue depressors, cotton balls, and blood pressure cuffs, a plastic card with your DNA chip becomes a routine part of a visit to the doctor’s office? The article represents the type of advances that 150 years of research has brought us, research that started with the studies discussed in this chapter.

We will begin with the work of a monk in the 1850s whose different ideas and meticulous methods of investigation yielded a foundation from which the next two generations of scientists could grow, toward an understanding of heredity at the molecular level. And grow they did, developing the roots of what we now know to be DNA science. As you will see, researchers often had to struggle against preconceived notions of what could (and could not) be the biological material that transferred characteristics from one generation to the next. It took persistence to establish DNA, a material with only four components, as a carrier of information, when proteins, which have 20 components, were much more familiar and well understood. (In fact we can wonder about what preconceived notions the scientists and students of the future will discover concerning our generation). Here we will retrace the steps of these persistent, open-minded scientists who paved our way to DNA.

Looking Ahead

DNA technology has its foundations in genetics, the science of heredity. It is appropriate, therefore, to open this book by exploring the insights and experiments that led scientists to recognize DNA as the hereditary substance. When you have completed the chapter, you should be able to do the following:

• Understand the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

• Recognize how the experiments of Gregor Mendel focused attention on cellular factors as the basis for inheritance.

• Understand the circumstances under which Mendel’s experiments were verified and how Sutton related Mendel’s factors to cellular units called chromosomes.

• Show how Morgan related eye color in fruit flies to chromosomes.

• Appreciate the origin of the term gene and describe how the gene concept emerged.

• Recount Miescher’s work on nuclei, and conceptualize how Feulgen and Mirsky contributed to the insight that genes are composed of DNA.

• Understand the significance of Griffith’s experiments in bacterial transformation, and conceptualize how the transforming principle was identified as DNA.

• Explain the seminal experiments of Hershey and Chase, and describe why their results pointed to DNA as the substance controlling protein and nucleic acid synthesis.

• Increase your vocabulary of terms relating to DNA technology.

Introduction

In past centuries, it was customary to explain inheritance by saying, it’s in the blood. People believed that children received blood from their parents and that a union of bloods led to the blending they saw in one’s characteristics. Such expressions as blood relations, blood will tell, and bloodlines reflect this belief.

However, by the 1850s, scientists were questioning the blood theory of inheritance. They could see quite clearly that semen contained no blood, and it was apparent that blood was not being transferred to the offspring. But if blood was not the hereditary substance, then what was?

It was a long road to understanding that DNA mediates inheritance. By the end of the 1800s, the blood basis of heredity was challenged and eventually discarded. In its place, scientists developed an interest in nucleic acid molecules organized into functional units called genes. Scientists guessed that genes control heredity by specifying the production of proteins. But even the gene basis of heredity was hard to believe because the amount of nucleic acid in the cell seemed insignificant.

The gene basis for heredity has become one of the foundation principles of biology. In the pages ahead, we will explore the development of the gene theory and note how interest grew in DNA as the substance of the gene. Long before scientists could apply the fruits of DNA research to modern technology, they had to learn what DNA was all about. What purpose, they asked, does DNA serve in a living cell?

Box 1.1.Cell Geography Sets the Stage

The term cell, in general, refers to a small room or compartment. The smallest compartment of an organism that is considered to be alive is a cell, and so it is regarded as the fundamental unit of life. Cells are the natural environment for all the processes discussed in this book. Getting the lay of the land, then, is important in understanding DNA and how it works.

There are two kinds of biological cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic.

Prokaryotic cells (Figure 1.1A) contain one continuous space in which cellular materials are organized, but not separated by membranes. A cell wall surrounds all prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotes are usually single-celled organisms and include both bacteria and archaea. The archaea live in extreme environments (for example, boiling hot thermal vents, freezing cold arctic waters, and oil wells).

In contrast, eukaryotic cells (Figure 1.1B) contain subcellular compartments. A membrane surrounds each compartment, and there are several different types of compartments, called organelles. Eukaryotic cells are usually 10- to 100-fold larger than prokaryotic cells (though there are a few exceptionally large bacteria that defy this rule). Eukaryotes include both single-celled organisms (the majority) and multicellular organisms. Of the eukaryotes, only plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall, and its composition is very different than a prokaryotic cell wall.

In eukaryotes, each type of cellular compartment is specialized. The nucleus is home to the vast majority of the DNA, where is it complexed with proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex compartments are involved in protein synthesis and trafficking (that is, sending proteins to their correct destinations). Mitochondria possess a membrane specialized for energy production. Chloroplasts are centers for photosynthesis.

A prokaryote’s DNA is tightly coiled with proteins in a region called the nucleoid. The nucleoid is not a compartment; it is just the DNA and proteins compacted together. In prokaryotes, some membrane-associated functions, such as energy production, are accomplished by the plasma membrane.

The presence or absence of subcellular compartments leads to differences in how cellular events take place. Compartments allow for increased complexity and regulation. For example, in prokaryotes, RNA synthesis and protein synthesis take place in the same compartment, so while RNA is being made from a DNA template, it can also be read nearly simultaneously to synthesize a protein. In eukaryotes, RNA synthesis occurs in the nucleus, and protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm. The separation or uncoupling of these processes into compartments allows for intermediate steps to occur between them. For example, splicing of RNA in different patterns allows several different proteins to be produced from a single gene. This is one of the contributions to the complexity of eukaryotes as compared to prokaryotes.

Features common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells include ribosomes, the molecular machines that synthesize proteins (although the exact makeup of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes is different), the plasma membrane, and the watery interior environment, the cytoplasm.

Developing a Theory of Inheritance

When Counting Counts: Mendel’s Approach Yields the Basis of Modern Gene Theory

In the mid-1800s (around the same time that scientists started questioning the blood theory of inheritance), a relatively obscure Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel (pictured in Figure 1.2) was conducting experiments to reveal the statistical pattern of inheritance. Mendel’s great contribution to science was the discovery of a predictable mechanism by which inherited characteristics move from parents to offspring. His work with plants laid the groundwork for intensive studies in genetics, a science that would blossom in the early part of the twentieth century.

Mendel lived in a region that relied heavily on agriculture, so it was not uncommon for educated individuals to have an interest in animal and plant breeding. Mendel had studied plant science at the University of Vienna, and he continued his interest in plants at the monastery at Brno (now a part of the Czech Republic). He began a series of experiments to learn more about the breeding patterns of pea plants. Peas were well suited for his work because they were easy to cultivate. Moreover, they had a short growing season, they could be fertilized artificially, and they resisted interference by foreign pollen.

Other important features of pea plants were their easily distinguished traits. Mendel observed, for example, that his garden had some pea plants with wrinkled seeds and others with smooth seeds; some had green pods, and others had yellow pods; some had white flowers, and others had red flowers. Figure 1.3 shows this diversity. The more Mendel pondered the source of variations, the more his curiosity was aroused. He set out to determine how the variations originated and how the traits were passed to the next generation.

A key ingredient in Mendel’s success was the plant he used to track inherited traits. The short generation time, obvious characteristics, and ease of breeding of pea plants provided a fertile ground (so to speak) for his observations and experiments to flourish.

Mendel studied pea plants by crossing plants having a certain characteristic with others having a contrasting characteristic. He then studied how traits were expressed in the offspring plants. Mendel found, for example, that by breeding selected tall plants to selected short plants, he could obtain plants that were exclusively tall. The trait for shortness had apparently disappeared. But when he bred the tall plants from this first generation among themselves, some short plants reappeared in the next generation among the tall plants. These results were unexpected and perplexing.

Mendel’s forté was mathematics. He carefully counted the plants displaying a particular characteristic and the plants having the contrasting characteristic (for example, tall plants and short plants); he discovered similar ratios of traits among the offspring. He noted, for example, that crossing the first generation’s tall plants among themselves always seemed to yield three tall plants for every short plant, as Figure 1.4 shows. (By that time, the monks in the monastery were noticing that peas had become a fairly regular item on the dinner table.)

Many scientists of the 1850s believed that a single factor controlled a trait, but Mendel, reasoning that one of the factors was obtained from the male and one from the female, began with the assumption that each trait was controlled by two factors (although the nature of the factor was unknown). He guessed that the factors express themselves in the offspring, but that one is dominant over the other. For example, the factor for tall plants dominates over the factor for short plants (it suppresses the short-plant factor, which is said to be recessive). The factors are then passed on to the next generation. Today we know Mendel’s factors as genes.

From his work, Mendel developed a theory of inheritance completely at odds with the blood basis of heredity. Mendel’s results implied that sperm and egg cells, not blood cells, carry the factors of inheritance. Moreover, Mendel surmised that the factors are discrete units, not some vague, mysterious elements of the blood. Aware of the unconventional nature of his suppositions, Mendel avoided controversy by keeping his suppositions largely to himself.

Mendel’s theory came to be known as the theory of transmissible factors. Although it was revolutionary for the times, Mendel did not stop there. For many years he investigated how one factor in the pair dominates the other factor and how a pair of factors separates during transmission to the next generation. He experimented up to the early 1860s and published his results in 1866 in the Proceedings of the Society of Natural Sciences in Brno. Mendel included a detailed analysis of his theories in the publication, and he communicated his findings to other scientists of the times through a series of letters. In retrospect, Mendel’s observations are regarded as one of the great insights in science and the beginning of the discipline of genetics.

Mendel’s assumptions were different from those of other scientists studying the same topic, so he was led to interpret his observations differently, developing the concept of transmissible factors we now know to be genes.

Unfortunately, scientists of his time paid little attention to Mendel’s work or its implications. One probable reason is that they had little understanding of biological chemistry. Another is that they failed to appreciate the significance of the cellular nucleus, the chromosomes, or the process of fertilization. Also, during the late 1800s, biologists were largely immersed in studying the theory of evolution, first promulgated in 1859 in Charles Darwin’s epic work On the Origin of Species. Research on inheritance and breeding was placed on the proverbial back burner as the biological, social, and economic implications of the theory of evolution continued to capture the attention andimagination of scientists and laypeople. Not until the year 1900 would interest in genetics once again come to the forefront of science.

In the spring of 1900, three European botanists, working independently of each other, repeated and verified Mendel’s work. Each botanist cited Mendel’s article in his research, and each awakened the scientific community to the work of the pioneering monk. It was not so unusual that all three should be aware of Mendel’s work, but it was remarkable that the rediscovery of his theories was made almost simultaneously by three investigators; indeed, the happenstance remains one of the unusual coincidences of scientific history. Within weeks, a wave of enthusiasm for inheritance research sprang up. The discoveries made by Mendel had been forgotten for almost 40 years. Now they would change scientific thinking forever.

Morgan’s Fruit Fly Experiments Reveal That Mendel’s Factors Are on Chromosomes

During the first years of the twentieth century, Mendel’s experiments were carefully studied, and the belief emerged that Mendel’s factors were related to parts of the cell called chromosomes. Chromosomes (literally colored bodies) are threadlike strands of chemical material located in the cell nucleus. The threads of each chromosome consolidate and become clearly visible under the microscope (Figure 1.5) when a cell is dividing. With few exceptions, all human body cells have 46 chromosomes, and the 46 chromosomes are organized in 23 pairs. (Red blood cells have no chromosomes, and sperm and egg cells have only 23 chromosomes.) It is now known that chromosomes contain the DNA that carries the cell’s genetic message.

Among the leaders in chromosome research at the turn of the century was the American biologist W. H. Sutton. In 1902, Sutton wrote that certain of Mendel’s rules of inheritance could be explained if Mendel’s factors were located on or in the chromosomes. Mendel had written, for instance, that inheritance factors occur in pairs, one member of the pair received from each parent. By 1900, cell biologists had established that chromosomes also occur in pairs, one chromosome derived from each parent. Moreover, Mendel theorized that during the production of sperm and egg cells, the paired factors separate and move as units to each cell. Studies in cell biology showed that chromosomes behave similarly during cell reproduction. Sutton pointed out that chromosomes could be the hypothetical inheritance factors Mendel thought responsible for heredity. Perhaps, he suggested, chromosomes and inheritance factors were identical.

To demonstrate the validity of the chromosomal theory of inheritance, scientists had to relate at least one trait to a cell’s chromosome. But in the early 1900s, the members of a chromosome pair could not be distinguished from each other visually. Thus, it was impossible to relate a single trait to a single chromosome by sight alone.

The problem was resolved in 1910 by Thomas Hunt Morgan of Columbia University (pictured in Figure 1.6). Morgan used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in his work. By careful observations, he determined that one of the four pairs of chromosomes in the fruit fly determines its sex. This chromosome pair, he discovered, also determines colorless white eyes. Through an exhaustive series of genetic crosses and statistical analyses, Morgan determined that the male fruit fly inherits only one chromosome for sex determination. Thus, it must also inherit only one chromosome for white eye color. Therefore, white eye color must depend on a single chromosome. By providing statistical evidence for the relationship between sex and eye color in Drosophila, Morgan placed the chromosomal theory of inheritance on a firm footing and enhanced the role of the chromosome as the possible vehicle of inheritance.

Morgan, like Mendel, made careful counts and analyzed them to arrive at firm conclusions about inheritance. By doing so, he was able to provide ample evidence supporting Sutton’s explanation that inheritance factors resided on chromosomes.

The next question was whether the whole chromosome or a part of a chromosome is responsible for an inherited trait. Writing in 1903, Sutton proposed that merely a part of a chromosome is the basis for a trait because not enough chromosomes are possible to account for all an individual’s traits. Sutton suggested that the chromosome may be divisible into smaller entities. Most other scientists agreed, and before long, the concept of the gene as the smaller entity gained prominence.

Factors Become Genes, and DNA Is Discovered

In the early 1900s, geneticists began using the terms inheritance unit and genetic particle to describe the factors occurring on the chromosomes of Mendel’s pea plants. By the 1920s, however, these terms had been discarded, and at the suggestion of the Scandinavian scientist Willard Johannsen, geneticists agreed to use the word gene instead. (Gene is derived from the Greek gennan, meaning to produce.) The term was originally used as part of Darwin’s word pangenesis to describe the theory that the whole body (including every atom and unit) produces itself over and over. In a 1910 article, Johannsen suggested using gene because it was completely free of connection with any hypothesis. The word was and continues to be a less cumbersome term than inheritance unit.

Scientists of the 1920s viewed the gene as a specific and separate entity sitting on the cell’s chromosomes, but not strictly a part of a chromosome. Fortunately, they also reasoned that if genes were associated with chromosomes, a first step in learning the chemical nature of the gene would be to learn the chemical composition of the chromosomes; this is precisely what researchers attempted to do in the early 1900s.

One possible chemical component of chromosomes was a seemingly unique organic compound of the cell nucleus called nucleic acid. Nucleic acid was first described in 1869 by the Swiss researcher Johann Friedrich Miescher. With great difficulty, Miescher separated nuclei from human white blood cells, and he searched for evidence of protein within these nuclei. Instead of protein, however, he found a substance unlike any class of chemicals then known. Miescher named the new substance nuclein (relating to its source). When he identified phosphorus in nuclein, he postulated that the substance was a storehouse for phosphorus in the cell.

As Miescher continued his study of nuclein, he located it in yeast cells and kidney, liver, and testicular cells. He also made the notable observation that nuclein was abundant in sperm cells obtained from a salmon. Some years later, chemists led by Phoebus Levene (Chapter 2) used this information in their studies and determined the components of nuclein. They gave it the more descriptive and technical name deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Coincidentally, Levene was born in 1869, the year of Miescher’s first report of nuclein.

Looking for the material that makes up chromosomes, Miescher discovered in the nucleus an abundant, initially mysterious substance he dubbed nuclein. After further chemical characterization by others, it was named deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

By the 1920s, it was clear that chromosomes had a role in heredity, and the isolation of DNA from cell nuclei made this organic substance a good candidate for the hereditary substance. Interest in DNA was further strengthened by a 1924 discovery attributed to the German biochemist Robert Feulgen, who observed that a dye (now called Feulgen stain) turns bright purple when it reacts with DNA. (Figure 1.7 shows an example of this staining characteristic.) The dye could be used to locate cellular DNA and to determine the concentration of DNA at various times in the cell’s life cycle. Isolating DNA was a difficult chore at that time, but Feulgen’s dye technique allowed DNA research to leap ahead without the burden of complex chemical isolations.

Another observation in that period helped forge the link between DNA and heredity. In the late 1920s, Alfred Mirsky and his coworkers at New York’s Rockefeller Institute reported that, with only two exceptions, all cells of an organism have virtually the same amount of DNA in their nuclei. The two exceptions are reproductive sperm and egg cells. These cells contain precisely half the amount of DNA found in nonreproductive cells such as muscle cells. Table 1.1 presents these data. Mirsky’s observation correlated with the theory that sex cells are the vehicle for bringing half the genetic information from each parent to the offspring.

The Rockefeller group led by Mirsky also experimented with the zygote, the cell resulting from the union of sperm and egg cells. The researchers found that the zygote contains the same amount of DNA as other cells of the body. This observation reinforced the notion that the DNA from two parents comes together during fertilization. In effect, it also verified the work of Mendel performed more than 60 years before because Mendel proposed that genetic factors separate when reproductive cells form, then come together in the offspring. The visual observations and chemical analyses of DNA led to the conclusion that the DNA was reduced by half during formation of the reproductive cells, then reconstituted in the offspring zygote. Figure 1.8 shows the relationship of DNA to other aspects of the body.

The relative amount of DNA in the nuclei of resting, dividing, and reproductive cells made DNA a good contender for the substance of chromosomes, but direct evidence that DNA was the hereditary material was lacking.

Relating DNA to Heredity

By the late 1920s, two concepts were evolving: genes are involved in heredity, and genes are composed of DNA. However, most evidence continued to be indirect and based on guesswork from laboratory deductions. Scientists needed direct evidence linking DNA to the development of observable traits. Two series of studies would provide that evidence. The first series was performed by Griffith, Alloway, Avery, and their colleagues. It drew a connection between DNA and the appearance of traits in bacteria. The second, performed by Hershey and Chase, linked DNA to the synthesis of protein. Both were landmark achievements in DNA technology; both connected enough dots to show that DNA is the substance of heredity.

A Transforming Factor Changes the Inherited Characteristics of Bacteria

In 1928, a British medical officer named Frederick Griffith reported some puzzling results in his work with bacteria. Griffith was performing experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae, a cause of bacterial pneumonia. The bacterium, commonly known as the pneumococcus, occurs in two strains. One strain is designated S because it forms smooth colonies when growing on bacteriological medium; the other strain is designated R because it forms rough colonies. (Both forms are shown in Figure 1.9.) It is well known that S strain pneumococci are lethal to mice (as well as to humans), whereas R strain pneumococci are harmless.

Griffith’s initial experiments produced the expected results. He confirmed that the S strain pneumococci were deadly to mice and that the R strain bacteria were harmless. Then he performed some variations of these experiments. Griffith found that he could inject debris from dead S strain bacteria into mice without harming the animals. As before, these results were not surprising because the S strain bacteria were dead. However, what happened next was remarkable.

Griffith mixed a sample of live R strain pneumococci (harmless) together with debris from dead S strain pneumococci (also harmless because no living cells were present). Then he injected the mixture into the mice. By all expectations, the mice should have lived (both the S strain debris and the R strain bacteria were harmless). But pneumonia developed in the mice and they died, as Figure 1.10 displays. Why did the animals die? Griffith’s answer came when he performed an autopsy on the animals: their lungs were full of live S strain pneumococci, the deadly strain. Apparently, the harmless R strain bacteria had changed into deadly S strain bacteria, which killed the animals.

Griffith’s biochemical magic appeared to work each time he performed the experiment. Moreover, other researchers were able to confirm his findings shortly thereafter. Griffith postulated that something in the S strain chemical debris (a protein, he believed) was entering the R strain bacteria and transforming them by changing their biochemistry. Unfortunately, he was unable to identify the transforming substance. Nor would he live to see the significance of his work. Griffith died during the German air attacks on London in 1941.

Mixing living, harmless bacteria with dead, formerly disease-causing bacteria led to a transformed strain of living bacteria that caused disease. The factor that transformed the bacteria from harmless to harmful remained unknown.

Griffith’s work did not go unnoticed by microbial geneticists. In 1933, James Lionel Alloway and his group at Rockefeller Institute successfully purified cell debris from S strain pneumococci and produced a cell-free extract. Then they used the extract to transform R strain bacteria to S strain bacteria. Moreover, they performed the transformation in test tubes, a procedure freeing them from the rigors of working with animals. Alloway noted that the transforming principle could be extracted from the mixture with alcohol and that the chemical appeared as a thick, stringy precipitate … which slowly settled out on standing. From the description, modern biochemists recognize the transforming principle as DNA. At the time, however, Alloway was inclined to believe the substance was made of protein.

In 1935, Oswald T. Avery (Figure 1.11) and his associates, Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty, began a series of exhaustive chemical analyses to identify the transforming substance. Beginning with crude extracts from bacteria, they used a process of elimination to determine the nature of the chemical substance by finding out what it was not. As the months and years unfolded, they dismissed proteins, fats, and carbohydrates as possible candidates for the transforming substance. It appeared that the only possible thing left was nucleic acid. Finally, the search narrowed down to one nucleic acid: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In a seminal article published in 1944, Avery and his colleagues presented evidence that DNA is the transforming principle (and opened the way to modern DNA technology). The researchers were not bold enough to claim that DNA was the hereditary material, but the implication was clear: DNA was apparently able to transform bacteria so dramatically that a harmless strain changed to a deadly strain.

Most scientists were blind to Avery’s discovery and were reluctant to accept DNA as the hereditary substance. The majority of geneticists of the 1940s were not trained in biochemistry, and Avery’s experiments were difficult for some to repeat. In addition, many scientists were hard pressed to believe that results obtained from bacteria could be applied to more complex organisms such as humans. Moreover, the results were published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, a publication that the geneticists and bacteriologists of that period usually did not read; and the preoccupation with World War II had restricted the dissemination and flow of scientific knowledge while limiting funds for scientific research. Therefore, the impact of Avery’s finding was lost.

Nevertheless, Avery’s group continued their efforts to prove that DNA was more than an inert chemical of the cell nucleus. With great difficulty they isolated a quantity of DNase from beef pancreas cells. DNase is a biological catalyst, an enzyme that destroys DNA but has no effect on other molecules. The investigators mixed their transforming substance with DNase and noted that the mixture lost its ability to transform bacteria. Still, many were not convinced.

Opposition was also voiced from the protein supporters. These scientists believed that protein was the genetic material because protein appeared to have the necessary complexity to encode all the biochemical information in the cell’s nucleus. Proteins are chains of 20 different and relatively simple organic molecules called amino acids (Chapter 2). A protein can be made of 10 amino acids or 1000 amino acids or 10,000 amino acids. The crucial element of any protein is the sequence of amino acids—that is, which amino acid follows which in the chain. This sequence of amino acids is as important to proteins as is the sequence of letters in a word (ton has a much different meaning than not). Protein supporters were of the opinion that the amino acid sequence in one protein serves as a model for constructing a new protein. Their outlook would be dealt a severe blow by the 1952 experiments of Hershey and Chase.

Despite experimentation that eliminated all other known candidates as the transforming factor, there was difficulty in accepting the idea that DNA could be the agent of transformation and hence biological inheritance.

Using Viruses, Hershey and Chase Establish DNA as the Agent of Inheritance

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (Figure 1.12) worked at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. The pair studied bacteria and the viruses that multiply within those bacteria (Figure 1.13). In 1952, scientists knew that certain viruses use bacteria as chemical factories for producing new viruses; however, the actual mechanism was uncertain. Biochemists were also aware that bacterial viruses are composed of a core of DNA enshrouded in a protein coat. What they did not know was whether the nucleic acid or the protein (or both) directs replication of the virus. Hershey and Chase would answer that question and in so doing, they would establish the essential role played by DNA in cellular biochemistry and inheritance.

Hershey and Chase made use of the observation that viral DNA contains phosphorus (P) but no sulfur (S). By contrast, the outer protein coat of the virus has sulfur (S) but no phosphorus (P). In their first experiments, Hershey and Chase cultivated viruses with the radioactive forms of phosphorus (³²P) and sulfur (³⁵S). They successfully prepared viruses whose nucleic acid was radioactive with ³²P and whose protein was radioactive with ³⁵S.

Now came the seminal experiments. Hershey and Chase mixed the radioactive viruses with a population of bacteria. Then they waited just long enough for viral replication to begin. At this point, they used an ordinary household blender (now a museum piece) to shear away any viruses and debris clinging to the bacterial surface.

Then the analysis began. Hershey and Chase tested the bacteria and surrounding fluid to find out where the radioactivity was. This would enable them to develop a biochemical glimpse of viral replication. After experimentally bursting the bacteria, the researchers found most of the ³²P within the contents of the bacterial cytoplasm. This finding indicated that viral DNA was entering the bacteria. Then they discovered that the ³⁵S was largely in the sheared-away remains of the viruses and in the surrounding fluid. This observation indicated that the protein part of the viruses was remaining outside the bacteria. The results led Hershey and Chase to the inescapable conclusion that viral DNA enters the bacterium, whereas the viral protein remains outside. (Figure 1.14 shows the experiment.) Thus, DNA was the sole element responsible for viral replication. Protein had no role in the process.

Certain experiments stand out as turning points in scientific history, and the experiments performed by Hershey and Chase are one such turning point. In retrospect, we can see how their results had substantial impact on the thinking of that era. Hershey and Chase clarified the important aspect of viral replication that nucleic acid goes inside the cell, whereas the protein coat remains outside. In broader terms, their results strengthened the place of DNA in cellular biochemistry. Bacterial viruses, it should be remembered, are composed solely of nucleic acid and protein, and the Hershey-Chase experiments reinforced the concept that DNA, and not protein, dictates the synthesis of both nucleic acid and protein.

It was becoming clear that all the biochemical information for the synthesis of both nucleic acid and protein is stored in the DNA. Avery’s experiments performed eight years earlier had linked DNA to the genetic material. The work of Hershey and Chase considerably strengthened that link.

Scientists are usually reluctant to run to a window and shout their discoveries to the world, and Hershey and Chase were no exceptions. Instead, they wrote soberly in a 1952 scientific journal, This protein probably has no function in the growth of intracellular phage. The DNA has some function. Their caution was shared by other biochemists who were equally hesitant to apply processes learned from viral replication to human cell functions. Indeed, late in 1952 James D. Watson, the co-discoverer of DNA’s structure (Chapter 2), read a telling letter from Hershey to a scientific group at Oxford, England. Said Hershey, My own guess is that DNA will not prove to be a unique determiner of genetic specificity. Scientific history has proven otherwise—considerably otherwise.

Summary

The roots of DNA research can be traced back to the innovative experiments of Gregor Mendel conducted in the mid-1800s. Mendel postulated that an inherited trait is controlled not by blood, but by factors obtained from the parents. His work with pea plants implied that one factor is obtained from each parent and that a particular factor may dominate the other. It also appeared that the factors separate during transmission to the next generation. However, at the time, little attention was paid to the work.

At the beginning of the 1900s, Mendel’s experiments were repeated and verified, and scientists postulated that his factors were really chromosomes. Morgan’s work of 1910 showed that white eye color in fruit flies is determined by a single chromosome, and he postulated that a single chromosome determines a trait. But because individual chromosomes could not explain all traits, molecular geneticists came to believe that entities on the chromosome called genes were the hereditary factors. Evidence presented by Miescher, Feulgen, and Mirsky indicated that chromosomes are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.

Experiments performed by other biologists and chemists strengthened the link between genes and DNA. In 1928, for example, Griffith showed that the characteristics of certain bacteria could be changed (i.e., the bacteria could be transformed) if they were mixed with debris from another type of bacterium. Alloway and his group found they could purify the debris to increase its potential to transform bacteria, and Avery and his colleagues discovered that the transforming material in the debris was DNA.

The experiments of Hershey and Chase provided the final proof for DNA’s involvement in heredity. Hershey and Chase performed experiments with bacteria and the viruses that replicate within them. Bacterial viruses are composed primarily of protein and DNA. The experimental results showed that DNA alone directs the replication of new viruses—that is, DNA contains the biochemical information for the synthesis of both the viral protein and the viral DNA. The results obtained by Hershey and Chase confirmed that DNA is the hereditary material and stimulated additional interest in the study of molecular genetics.

Review

This chapter has recounted the process by which DNA was identified as the substance of heredity. To test your comprehension of the chapter’s major ideas, answer the following review questions:

1. What was Mendel’s great contribution to science, and how did his work lay the groundwork for studies in genetics?

2. Draw a picture or diagram that contains all of the following, and label each: cell, chromosomes, gene, DNA, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Is the cell eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Label it and state why. Learn to draw such a picture without looking at the textbook or other source of information.

3. How did Morgan go about demonstrating that a trait can be associated with a chromosome?

4. How was a gene viewed in the 1920s?

5. Describe the contributions of Johann Miescher to the study of molecular genetics.

6. What observations made by Feulgen and Mirsky helped forge a link between DNA and heredity?

7. Describe the experiments performed by Frederick Griffith, and explain why they were significant to the development of genetics.

8. Identify the accomplishment of Avery and his collaborators, and indicate why their work did not receive acclaim.

9. Explain the experiments performed by Hershey and Chase, indicating what the tools of the experiment were and what the results were.

10. Summarize how the Hershey-Chase experiment was a deciding factor in linking DNA to protein and DNA synthesis.

Additional Reading

Cummings, M.C., Human Heredity, Principles and Issues. eighth ed. (2008) Brooks Cole, Belmont, CA .

Dubos, R., The Professor, The Institute, and DNA. (1976) Rockefeller University Press, New York .

Griffith, F., The significance of pneumococcal types, J. Hyg. 27 (1928) 113–115.

Lewis, R., Human Genetics. eighth ed. (2007) WC Brown, McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, IA .

Olby, R., The Path to the Double Helix. (1974) University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA .

Web Sites

Cells Alive! Interactive bacterial, animal, and plant cell diagrams. www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm

DNA from the Beginning: Classical Genetics. Dolan DNA Learning Center (2002) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. www.dnaftb.org

The Inner Life of a Cell (animation). Viel, A., Lue, R.A., Liebler, J., 2007. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu

Chapter 2. The DNA Double Helix

Nanomaterials: Golden Handshake

Nature: News and Views, January 30, 2008

By John C. Crocker

Three-dimensional nanoparticle arrays are likely to be the foundation of future optical and electronic materials. A promising way to assemble them is through the transient pairings of complementary DNA strands.

One of the staple concepts of nanotechnology is that of growing useful materials or devices by coaxing a random mixture of microscopic parts to assemble spontaneously into a desired structure. Versatile self-assembly schemes have been demonstrated that use DNA as the primary building material…. Two research teams have built on the successes with DNA to aid the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. Their technique should also work for other varieties of technologically exciting nanoparticles.

Progress in achieving the directed self-assembly of nanoparticles had been elusive, owing to one potentially daunting requirement: selective adhesion. Each microscopic part must be engineered so that it sticks only to the others it should abut in the desired final structure…

This is where DNA comes into its own. Particles carrying complementary strands of DNA selectively adhere to each other when the strands hybridize to form the familiar DNA double helix. The final architecture is thus determined not by chemistry or charge, but by the lengths and nucleotide sequences of the DNA strands. That promises a versatile assembly scheme that might be used with particles of nearly any material to fabricate nanocomposites or metamaterials with unusual electronic and optical properties. The applications of such materials might include high-efficiency solar panels and lasers, super-resolution microscopes—and even coatings to render objects invisible.

More than 50 years after the discovery of the DNA double helix, our knowledge of the structure of DNA continues to pay off in ways that even Watson and Crick could not have dreamed of in 1953. Now, almost a decade into the twenty-first century, scientists worldwide are using the unique properties of DNA structure, including its ability to store information in the double helix, for new and amazing applications in science and biomedical research. DNA is being used to assemble individual atoms into designer molecules using nanotechnology. Scientists are learning how to assemble molecules with some amazing properties, from fibers that are hundreds of times as strong as steel yet weigh one-sixth as much, to nanofactories that can assemble nearly anything, from a new iPod to the clothes you wear, starting with individual atoms.

Nanomaterials: Golden Handshake describes how the structure of DNA is already playing a novel role in the development of these futuristic materials. In this chapter, we’ll explore how the structure of DNA was determined, a puzzle that was solved only by interpreting and integrating data from several different scientific fields. This historic achievement was accomplished by two scientists who juggled the scientific puzzle pieces in their minds (and with cardboard cutouts), but who did not actually perform a single hands-on experiment with DNA.

Looking Ahead

Determining the structure of DNA was one of the major scientific achievements of the twentieth century. Knowing the structure of DNA gave scientists insight into how heredity works and made the revolution in molecular biology and DNA technology possible. Moreover, the structure of DNA had an enormous impact on our understanding of gene function and DNA replication in cells. On completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

• Recognize the three fundamental building blocks of nucleotides used to assemble DNA.

• Describe how sugar and phosphate groups link to each other to form the backbone of the DNA molecule.

• Summarize Erwin Chargaff’s findings, and indicate why they were important in solving the puzzle of DNA structure.

• Discuss the different contributions of Franklin, Wilkins, Watson, and Crick in determining the structure of DNA.

• Explain what is meant by semiconservative DNA replication.

• Describe the important functional characteristics of the DNA polymerase enzymes involved in duplicating genome DNA.

• Use your newly acquired DNA vocabulary to read with understanding about DNA-related topics online (google DNA), and expand your confidence in learning about DNA.

Introduction

By the 1950s, it was becoming increasingly clear to the scientific community that the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule is the basis of genetic heredity. It is hard to believe these days, but at the time, very little was known about DNA structure. Scientists realized that they needed to know the molecular structure of DNA because the structure of the DNA molecule might shed light on the hereditary process; also, understanding DNA structure might explain how the molecule duplicates during cell reproduction. The processes of genetic heredity and cellular

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