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Edible Wattle Seeds of Southern Australia: A Review of Species for Use in Semi-Arid Regions

Edible Wattle Seeds of Southern Australia: A Review of Species for Use in Semi-Arid Regions

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Edible Wattle Seeds of Southern Australia: A Review of Species for Use in Semi-Arid Regions

Longitud:
191 página
1 hora
Publicado:
Jan 1, 1998
ISBN:
9780643102538
Formato:
Libro

Descripción

This book identifies 47 Acacia species which have potential for cultivation in the southern semi-arid region of Australia as a source of seed for human consumption.

Eighteen species are regarded as having the greatest potential. Botanical profiles are provided for these species, together with information on the natural distribution, ecology, phenology, growth characteristics and seed attributes.

Two species, Acacia victoriae and Acacia murrayana, appear particularly promising as the seeds of both these have good nutritional characteristics and were commonly used as food by Aborigines. Acacia victoriae is currently the most important wattle used in the Australian bushfood industry.

This book is a useful reference for the bush food industry.

Publicado:
Jan 1, 1998
ISBN:
9780643102538
Formato:
Libro

Sobre el autor


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Edible Wattle Seeds of Southern Australia - BR B.R. Maslin

EDIBLE WATTLE SEEDS

OF SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA

A REVIEW OF SPECIES

FOR USE IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS

B.R. Maslin, LAJ. Thomson, M.W. McDonald and S. Hamilton-Brown

Disclaimer

CSIRO and CALM disclaim liability for any loss, injury, damages and costs incurred by any persons as a result of using the information in this book.

More research must take place before plantings of any Acacia species for seed/human food production in southern Australia can be recommended. Of particular relevance in this regard is the need for comprehensive biochemical analyses, especially of possible anti-nutritional or toxic components. There is also a need to better understand the biology, ecology and silvicultural requirements of the species included here.

EDIBLE WATTLE SEEDS OF SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA

A REVIEW OF SPECIES FOR USE IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in the Publication entry:

Authors: B.R. Maslin¹, L.A.J. Thomson², M.W McDonald² and S. Hamilton-Brown¹

¹‘Department of Conservation and Land Management, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA, 6983.

Email brucem@calm.wa.gov.au

²CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Australian Tree Seed Centre, PO Box E4008, Kingston, ACT 2604.

Email atsc@ffp.csiro.au

CONTENTS

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

The southern semi-arid region

General utilisation of temperate dry-zone acacias

Aboriginal use of temperate dry-zone Acacia seed

Nutritional value and toxicology of Acacia seed

Current use of Acacia seeds

Wild harvest or plantations?

Caveats on the use of Acacia seeds as a human food

Methods

Species selection

DETAILS OF THE MOST PROMISING SPECIES

Acacia murrayana F. Muell. ex Benth

Acacia victoriae Benth

DETAILS OF OTHER PROMISING SPECIES

Acacia jennerae Maiden

Acacia microbotrya Benth

Acacia pycnantha Benth

Acacia retinodes Schldl

Acacia rivalis J.M. Black

Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. Wendl

DETAILS OF LESSER-KNOWN SPECIES

Acacia anthochaera Maslin

Acacia blakelyi Maiden and A. scirpifolia Meisner

Acacia brumalis Maslin

Acacia calamifolia Sweet ex Lindley

Acacia confluens Maiden & Blakely

Acacia hakeoides Cunn. ex Benth

Acacia hemiteles Benth

Acacia prainii Maiden

Acacia subrigida Maslin

SEED AVAILABILITY FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

REFERENCES

TABLES

PREFACE

4 December 1997

This review is a further addition to the growing body of knowledge on the use of Australian Acacia seed for human consumption. Where much of the previous work has concentrated on tropical and subtropical species, this book covers temperate areas and provides information on a range of species from southern and central Australia.

It has provided another opportunity for close collaboration with Aboriginal people, and their traditional knowledge has been an important foundation for the work to date. This book adds information on the ecology, nutritional aspects, genetic variability and taxonomy to the knowledge base.

The review has also provided another opportunity to link skills in taxonomy and utilisation resident at CALM in Western Australia and the Australian Tree Seed Centre in Canberra, and to increase the information available for some less well known species. This book is a further demonstration of both organisations’ commitment to exploration of Australia’s rich botanical heritage.

Tim Vercoe

Officer in Charge

Australian Tree Seed Centre

CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are indebted to the Australian Aborigines who in sharing their traditional cultural heritage have facilitated the prospect of utilising wattle seed as a modern-day food source. The Australian Tree Seed Centre (CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products) and its staff, especially Mr Stephen Midgley, Dr Chris Harwood, Mr Doug Boland and Mr Jock Morse, are thanked for their support and input in the development of this review. Mr John Maslin is thanked for preparing the maps and Margaret Pieroni for most of the fine illustrations. Mr Peter Bindon (Western Australian Museum) is thanked for his invaluable assistance on some of the Aboriginal utilisation information. Mr Andrew Beale (Australian Native Produce Industries) and Mr Paul James (Gundabluey Bush Foods) supplied valuable information on the use of Acacia seed in the Australian food industry. Mr Pat Ryan (Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management) is thanked for comments on the utilisation of some Western Australia species. The Handbook Committee of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia, together with Murray Fagg, Norman Hall, Jo Kenrick and Martin O’Leary are thanked for providing slides of some species.

ABSTRACT

Based on reports of their utilisation as food by Aborigines and other salient features, this review has identified 47 Acacia species which have potential for cultivation in southern semi-arid region of Australia as a source of seed for human consumption. Relevant characteristics of these species are summarised in tabular form. For the 18 species regarded as having the greatest potential, brief botanical profiles are provided, together with information on their natural distribution, ecology, phenology, growth characteristics and seed attributes relevant to their use as a human food. The 47 species include representatives from most of the major taxonomic groups of Acacia that occur in the temperate dry-zone of Australia. The 18 best prospects all belong to section Phyllodineae.

Two species, A.victoriae and A.murrayana, appear particularly promising for production of human food in southern Australia. The seeds of both species have good nutritional characteristics and were commonly used as food by Aborigines. Wild populations have wide adaptability, grow rapidly and produce moderate to heavy seed crops in most years. Both species are easily propagated from seed and plantations can be established by direct seeding. Over-mature, declining stands may be regenerated by coppicing and/or shallow ripping to induce suckering. Acacia victoriae is currently the most important species of Acacia in the Australian bushfood industry.

Much more research must take place before plantations of any Acacia species for seed/human food production in southern Australia can be recommended. Comprehensive biochemical analyses, especially of possible anti-nutritional or toxic components, and taste appraisals of the seeds are required. There is also an important requirement for biosystematic studies of species with highest economic potential. Such information is fundamental to developing a better understanding of their biology (including weed potential), ecology and silvicultural requirements. Commercial considerations such as market size and long-term viability, and seed production costs, are essential ahead of any wide-scale planting of Acacia. These studies should be based on a sound taxonomy and comprehensive, well-documented seed collections.

INTRODUCTION

Acacia microbotrya

Photogragh: M. McDonald

The aims of this book are to review temperate dry-zone

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